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Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast and the most frequent cryptococcal species found in humans. Cryptococcosis is considered an opportunistic infection as it affects mainly immunosuppressed individuals. In humans, C. neoformans causes three types of infections: pulmonary cryptococcosis, cryptococcal meningitis and wound or cutaneous cryptococcosis. Case Presentation: An 81-year-old woman developed severe necrotizing cellulitis on her left arm without any preceding injury. The patient had been treated with systemic corticosteroids over twenty years for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Skin biopsies of the wound area were initially interpreted as cutaneous vasculitis of unknown etiology. However, periodic acid Schiff staining and smear analysis later revealed structures consistent with Cryptococcus neoformans, and the infection was subsequently confirmed by culture. After the initiation of therapy with fluconazole 400 mg per day the general condition and the skin ulcers improved rapidly and the patient was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. Subsequently surgical debridement and skin grafting were performed.
Opportunistic infections such as cryptococcosis can clinically and histologically mimic cutaneous vasculitis and have to be investigated rigorously as a differential diagnosis in immunosuppressed patients.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: BMC infectious diseases
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Necrotizing VASCULITIS of small and medium size vessels, developing as a complication in RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients. It is characterized by peripheral vascular lesions, cutaneous ULCERS, peripheral GANGRENE, and MONONEURITIS MULTIPLEX.
Determination of which one of two or more diseases or conditions a patient is suffering from by systematically comparing and contrasting results of diagnostic measures.
Rheumatoid arthritis of children occurring in three major subtypes defined by the symptoms present during the first six months following onset: systemic-onset (Still's Disease, Juvenile-Onset), polyarticular-onset, and pauciarticular-onset. Adult-onset cases of Still's disease (STILL'S DISEASE, ADULT-ONSET) are also known. Only one subtype of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
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