Oxidative DNA damage: the thyroid hormone-mediated effects of insulin on liver tissue.
Thyroid hormone affects glucose homeostasis with its actions between the skeletal muscle and liver and the altered oxidative and non-oxidative glucose metabolism. In our study three chemicals are considered biomarkers associated with oxidative stress for protein modifications were measured; 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyyguanosine (8-OHdG), a major lesion that can be generated by reactive oxygen species for DNA damage, protein carbonyl content (PCO), products of protein oxidation and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) a dithyrosine containing cross-linked protein products. The purpose of the recent study was to determine the effects of insulin and T(4) or their combination in diabetic, thyroidectomized, or diabetic-thyroidectomized rats and possible relations with oxidative DNA and protein damages. For this purpose, rats were assigned to eight groups: Group 1; control, Group 2; diabetes, Group 3; diabetes + insulin, Group 4; surgically thyroidectomized control, Group 5; thyroidectomized + diabetes, Group 6; thyroidectomized + diabetes + insulin, Group 7; thyroidectomized + diabetes + insulin + thyroid hormone, levothyroxin sodium, 2.5 mug/kg and Group 8; thyroidectomized + diabetes + insulin + thyroid hormone, levothyroxin sodium, 5.0 mug/kg for 5 weeks. After the genomic DNA of liver tissues was extracted, the ratio of 8-OHdG to deoxyguanosine and liver tissue protein oxidation markers was determined. The main findings of our recent study were the increased 8-OHdG levels during the diabetes, hypothyroidism, and hypothyroidism with diabetes, which can be regulated in different percentages with the treatment of 2.5 and 5.0 mug/kg doses of thyroid hormone and the altered protein carbonyl and AOPP levels of liver tissue. Consequently, it was observed that the DNA and protein damage induced by oxidative stress in diabetes could be regulated by dose-dependent thyroid hormone-mediated effects to insulin treatment.
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20703869
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-010-9376-7
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A hypermetabolic syndrome caused by excess THYROID HORMONES which may come from endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous source of hormone may be thyroid HYPERPLASIA; THYROID NEOPLASMS; or hormone-producing extrathyroidal tissue. Thyrotoxicosis is characterized by NERVOUSNESS; TACHYCARDIA; FATIGUE; WEIGHT LOSS; heat intolerance; and excessive SWEATING.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.