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Background. Acute febrile illnesses are a common cause of tropical acute kidney injury (AKI). The incidence and severity of AKI in tropical febrile illnesses and validity of RIFLE classification are unclear. Methods. Consecutive adult inpatients of a tertiary hospital in southern India with tropical acute febrile illness between January 2007 and January 2008 were prospectively studied for the incidence and severity of AKI based on RIFLE classification and its association with mortality and dialysis requirement. Results. The 367 patients (mean age 39.7 +/- 16.9 years; 60% males) with tropical acute febrile illness due to scrub typhus (51.2%), falciparum malaria (10.4%), enteric fever (8.7%), dengue (7.6%), mixed malaria (6.5%), leptospirosis (3.3%), undifferentiated acute febrile illness (8.4%) and others (3.8%) (spotted fever, vivax malaria and Hantaan virus infection) had an overall mortality rate of 12.3%. The incidence of AKI was 41.1%; of which, 17.4%, 9.3% and 14.4% were in the Risk, Injury and Failure classes, respectively. Of the patients, 7.9% required dialysis. Among the Risk, Injury and Failure groups, there was an incremental risk of mortality (OR 6.9, 20.2 and 25.6; P < 0.001) and dialysis requirement (OR 3.4, 28.8 and 178.8; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The incidence of AKI in the common tropical acute febrile illnesses in our study such as scrub typhus, falciparum malaria, enteric fever, dengue and leptospirosis is 41.1%. RIFLE classification is valid and applicable in AKI related to tropical acute febrile illnesses, with an incremental risk of mortality and dialysis requirement.
1Department of Nephrology.
This article was published in the following journal.
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Abrupt reduction in kidney function defined as an absolute increase in serum CREATININE of more than or equal to 0.3. mg/dl, a percentage increase in serum creatinine of more than or equal to 50%, or a reduction in urine output. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.
An acute febrile illness caused by RICKETTSIA RICKETTSII. It is transmitted to humans by bites of infected ticks and occurs only in North and South America. Characteristics include a sudden onset with headache and chills and fever lasting about two to three weeks. A cutaneous rash commonly appears on the extremities and trunk about the fourth day of illness.
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
Conditions in which the function of KIDNEYS deteriorates suddenly in a matter of days or even hours. It is characterized by the sudden drop in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE; (GMR). The most severe stage is when the GFR drops below 15 ml per min (ACUTE KIDNEY FAILURE).