Current concepts in mitral valve prolapse-Diagnosis and management.
Summary of "Current concepts in mitral valve prolapse-Diagnosis and management."
Although mitral valve prolapse as a disease entity has been recognized for over 50 years, its precise definition has been elusive. Initial reports based the diagnosis on auscultatory findings (late systolic click - murmur), with left ventricular angiography as a confirmative test. Echocardiography, first the M-mode, and subsequently the two-dimensional, became the dominant diagnostic modality. However, the early reports did not distinguish between billowing valve and flail valve. The advent of surgical repair techniques provided a different perspective; the surgical definition of mitral valve prolapse is often different from that of cardiologists. Intraoperative echocardiography gained wide acceptance necessitating a common language to describe precise terminology of the leaflet anatomy and definition of valve prolapse. The present report proposes a terminology and definitions of valve prolapse with relevance to surgical mitral valve repair. The addition of real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography now provides highly accurate localization of lesions and the multi segment assessment of valve pathology. The etiologic considerations and surgical repair techniques with the role of echo - surgery team in improved patient outcome are described.
Hoag Heart Valve Center, One Hoag Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92658, United States.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of cardiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20702064
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2010.06.004
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
Mitral Valve Annuloplasty
A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annulus of the MITRAL VALVE. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.
Mitral Valve Stenosis
Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
Tricuspid Valve Prolapse
Abnormal protrusion of one or more of the leaflets of TRICUSPID VALVE into the RIGHT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into right atrium leading to TRICUSPID VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS. Its most common cause is not primary valve abnormality but rather the dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the tricuspid annulus.
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