Advertisement

Topics

Melatonin and the skeleton.

08:00 EDT 29th May 2013 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Melatonin and the skeleton."

Melatonin may affect bone metabolism through bone anabolic as well as antiresorptive effects. An age-related decrease in peak melatonin levels at nighttime is well documented, which may increase bone resorption and bone loss in the elderly. In vitro, melatonin reduces oxidative stress on bone cells by acting as an antioxidant. Furthermore, melatonin improves bone formation by promoting differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) into the osteoblastic cell linage. Bone resorption is reduced by increased synthesis of osteoprogeterin (OPG), a decoy receptor that prevents receptor activator of NK-κB ligand (RANKL) in binding to its receptor. Moreover, melatonin is believed to reduce the synthesis of RANKL preventing further bone resorption. In ovariectomized as well as nonovariectomized rodents, melatonin has shown beneficial effects on bone as assessed by biochemical bone turnover markers, DXA, and μCT scans. Furthermore, in pinealectomized animals, bone mineral density (BMD) is significantly decreased compared to controls, supporting the importance of sufficient melatonin levels. In humans, dysfunction of the melatonin signaling pathway may be involved in idiopathic scoliosis, and the increased fracture risk in nighttime workers may be related to changes in the circadian rhythm of melatonin. In the so-far only randomized study on melatonin treatment, no effects were, however, found on bone turnover markers. In conclusion, melatonin may have beneficial effects on the skeleton, but more studies on humans are warranted in order to find out whether supplementation with melatonin at bedtime may preserve bone mass and improve bone biomechanical competence.

Affiliation

Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology (MEA), THG Tage-Hansens Gade 2, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark, anne_kristine_am@hotmail.com.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and
ISSN: 1433-2965
Pages:

Links

DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [481 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Melatonin - known problems and perspectives of clinical usage.

The article discusses well-known and ongoing studies of mechanisms of action of melatonin. The main clinical effects of melatonin are discussed. The emphasis on the chronobiological effect of melatoni...

Melatonin increases reactive aggression in humans.

Melatonin, a hormone released preferentially by the pineal gland during the night, affects circadian rhythms and aging processes. As animal studies have shown that melatonin increases resident-intrude...

Antiglycation activity of melatonin.

For the first time, it was found that the hormone melatonin exhibited antiglycation activity in vitro. It was shown that melatonin significantly slowed down the accumulation of fluorescent Schiff addu...

Melatonin as a versatile molecule to design novel multitarget hybrids against neurodegeneration.

Melatonin is an indoleamine produced mainly in the pineal gland. The natural decline of melatonin levels with aging strongly contributes to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Pleiotropic ...

Melatonin as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant: one of evolution's best ideas.

Melatonin is an ancient antioxidant. After its initial development in bacteria, it has been retained throughout evolution such that it may be or may have been present in every species that have existe...

Clinical Trials [169 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Blind Child Melatonin Treatment Study

The primary focus of this five-year study will be to optimize the melatonin dosing regimen for synchronizing the body clocks of blind children to the 24-hour day.

Plasma Melatonin AND Mortality After Acute Myocardial Infarction

Pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that melatonin has cardio-protection effects. Melatonin has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and antilip...

Melatonin in Pregnancy Compared to Non-pregnant

Melatonin is well known for its role in the sleep-wake cycle but it is less well known as an effective antioxidant. It has been reported to be synthesised in the placenta and may have both...

Melatonin and the Metabolic Syndrome

Melatonin is a hormone that regulates some body functions, including the sleep/wake cycle. Some people take melatonin supplements (over the counter) for promoting sleep. Some studies sugg...

Melatonin Effects on Luteinizing Hormone

In many mammals, the duration of the nocturnal melatonin elevation regulates seasonal changes in reproductive hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH). Melatonin's effects on human repro...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.

A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.

A melatonin receptor subtype primarily found expressed in the BRAIN and RETINA.

A melatonin receptor subtype that is primarily found in the HYPOTHALAMUS and in the KIDNEY.

Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.

Quick Search
Advertisement
 


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topics

Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disease in which the bones become extremely porous, are subject to fracture, and heal slowly, occurring especially in women following menopause and often leading to curvature of the spine from vertebral collapse. Follow and track&n...

Stress
Stress is caused by your perception of situations around you and then the reaction of your body to them. The automatic stress response to unexpected events is known as 'fight or flight'. Discovered by Walter Cannon in 1932, it is the release of h...


Searches Linking to this Article