Melatonin and the skeleton.
Summary of "Melatonin and the skeleton."
Melatonin may affect bone metabolism through bone anabolic as well as antiresorptive effects. An age-related decrease in peak melatonin levels at nighttime is well documented, which may increase bone resorption and bone loss in the elderly. In vitro, melatonin reduces oxidative stress on bone cells by acting as an antioxidant. Furthermore, melatonin improves bone formation by promoting differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) into the osteoblastic cell linage. Bone resorption is reduced by increased synthesis of osteoprogeterin (OPG), a decoy receptor that prevents receptor activator of NK-κB ligand (RANKL) in binding to its receptor. Moreover, melatonin is believed to reduce the synthesis of RANKL preventing further bone resorption. In ovariectomized as well as nonovariectomized rodents, melatonin has shown beneficial effects on bone as assessed by biochemical bone turnover markers, DXA, and μCT scans. Furthermore, in pinealectomized animals, bone mineral density (BMD) is significantly decreased compared to controls, supporting the importance of sufficient melatonin levels. In humans, dysfunction of the melatonin signaling pathway may be involved in idiopathic scoliosis, and the increased fracture risk in nighttime workers may be related to changes in the circadian rhythm of melatonin. In the so-far only randomized study on melatonin treatment, no effects were, however, found on bone turnover markers. In conclusion, melatonin may have beneficial effects on the skeleton, but more studies on humans are warranted in order to find out whether supplementation with melatonin at bedtime may preserve bone mass and improve bone biomechanical competence.
Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology (MEA), THG Tage-Hansens Gade 2, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23716040
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-013-2404-8
Delivery of melatonin and targeting melatonin receptors pose as neuroprotective strategies for stroke therapy. The potential of melatonin--based therapeutics for clinical application in stroke patient...
Melatonin, which is produced by pineal gland and peripheral tissue cells, has a very wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. Available experimental data show that melatonin can provide universal pr...
Nocturnal voids are regulated by circadian biological rhythms including decreased urine production and increased bladder storage capacity at night. A previous experimental study has suggested that exo...
Melatonin is an endocrine hormone secreted by the pineal gland during night hours that provides several biological functions in the circadian rhythm of humans. Due to anti-estrogenic properties, melat...
Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be aggravated by stress, like sleep deprivation, and improved by anti-inflammatory agents, like mel...
The primary focus of this five-year study will be to optimize the melatonin dosing regimen for synchronizing the body clocks of blind children to the 24-hour day.
Melatonin is a hormone that regulates some body functions, including the sleep/wake cycle. Some people take melatonin supplements (over the counter) for promoting sleep. Some studies sugg...
In many mammals, the duration of the nocturnal melatonin elevation regulates seasonal changes in reproductive hormones such as luteinizing hormone (LH). Melatonin's effects on human repro...
Preterm babies are at risk of brain injury. Melatonin, a naturally occurring hormone, may reduce this risk. The unborn baby receives melatonin from the mother but following premature deliv...
The aim of the study is to assess the effect of melatonin treatment in patients with osteopenia on BMD, muscle function, quality of life and calcium homeostasis.
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.
A melatonin receptor subtype primarily found expressed in the BRAIN and RETINA.
A melatonin receptor subtype that is primarily found in the HYPOTHALAMUS and in the KIDNEY.
Validation of the sex of an individual by means of the bones of the SKELETON. It is most commonly based on the appearance of the PELVIS; SKULL; STERNUM; and/or long bones.