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The use of blood donor history and state-of-the-art FDA-licensed serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays have greatly reduced the "infectious window" for several transfusion-transmitted pathogens. Currently transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), hepatitis viruses and West Nile Virus are rare events. The seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus in the donor population is high and cytomegalovirus infection can cause significant complications for immunocompromised recipients of blood transfusion. Careful use of CMV seronegative blood resources and leukoreduction of blood products are able to prevent most CMV infections in these patients. Currently, bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates is the greatest remaining infectious disease risk in blood transfusion. Specialized donor collection procedures reduce the risk of bacterial contamination of blood products; blood culture and surrogate testing procedures are used to detect potential bacterially contaminated platelet products prior to transfusion. A rapid quantitative immunoassay is now available to test for the presence of lipotechoic acid and lipopolysaccharide bacterial products prior to platelet transfusion. Attention has now turned to emerging infectious diseases including variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, dengue, babesiosis, Chagas' disease and malaria. Challenges are presented to identify and prevent transmission of these agents. Several methods are being used or in development to reduce infectivity of blood products, including solvent-detergent processing of plasma and nucleic acid cross-linking via photochemical reactions with methylene blue, riboflavin, psoralen and alkylating agents. Several opportunities exist to further improve blood safety through advances in infectious disease screening and pathogen inactivation methods.
Department of Pathology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 East Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Infectious disorders drug targets
Leukoreduced (LR) or cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative cellular blood components are commonly used to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted CMV infection in high-risk patients.
Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions lik...
Liver transplantation (LT) was historically associated with massive blood loss and transfusion. Over the past two decades transfusion requirements have reduced dramatically and increasingly transfusio...
Most Cranial Vault Remodeling (CVR) for craniosynostosis is associated with substantial blood loss necessitating transfusion. The transfusion of over 25 mL/kg of red blood cells has long been consider...
Data on age of blood and its impact on donor exposure and inventory in the paediatric setting are lacking. The standard of practice of reserving a specific red blood cell (RBC) unit for neonates who m...
In many countries, numerous steps are taken to minimize the risk of infection from transfused blood products. Typically, blood banking organisations will screen for an array of infectious ...
To develop and apply quantitative methods by which to measure and characterize blood transfusion practice in specific diagnoses and procedures; to open scientific communication about trans...
The purpose is to evaluate and improve transfusion practice
This study will follow blood transfusion recipients for 6 to 9 months following transfusion to monitor the quality and safety of blood transfusion. Improved viral testing and careful dono...
To identify a large cohort of children transfused in the decade prior to second-generation anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) donor screening (1982-1992). This will not only identify cases for t...
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
In utero transfusion of BLOOD into the FETUS for the treatment of FETAL DISEASES, such as fetal erythroblastosis (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS, FETAL).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A single-chain polypeptide derived from bovine tissues consisting of 58 amino-acid residues. It is an inhibitor of proteolytic enzymes including CHYMOTRYPSIN; KALLIKREIN; PLASMIN; and TRYPSIN. It is used in the treatment of HEMORRHAGE associated with raised plasma concentrations of plasmin. It is also used to reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients at high risk of major blood loss during and following open heart surgery with EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
AIDS and HIV
AIDS; Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV; Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV infection causes AIDS. HIV infection also causes the production of anti-HIV antibodies, which forms the test for HIV in patients. People who have the HIV antibodies are ...