Regulatory B cells in autoimmune diseases and mucosal immune homeostasis.
Summary of "Regulatory B cells in autoimmune diseases and mucosal immune homeostasis."
B lymphocytes contribute to physiological immunity through organogenesis of secondary lymphoid organs, presentation of antigen to T cells, production of antibodies, and secretion of cytokines. Their role in several autoimmune diseases, mainly as producers of pathogenic antibodies, is also well known. However, certain subsets of B cells are emerging as the important regulatory cell populations in both mouse and human. The regulatory functions of B cells have been demonstrated in a variety of mouse models of autoimmune diseases including collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), experiment autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID), diabetes, contact hypersensitivity (CHS), and intestinal mucosal inflammation. Accumulating evidence from both mouse and human studies confirms the existence of regulatory B cells, and is beginning to define their mechanisms of action. In this article, we first review the history of B cells with regulatory function in autoimmune diseases, and summarize the current understanding about the characterizations of such B-cell subsets. We then discuss the possible regulatory mechanisms of B cells, and specifically define the role of regulatory B cells in immune homeostasis in the intestine.
Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, California, CA, 90095, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20701454
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08916931003782189
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Demyelinating Autoimmune Diseases, Cns
Conditions characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin (see MYELIN SHEATH) in the brain, spinal cord, or optic nerves secondary to autoimmune mediated processes. This may take the form of a humoral or cellular immune response directed toward myelin or OLIGODENDROGLIA associated autoantigens.
Removal of plasma and replacement with various fluids, e.g., fresh frozen plasma, plasma protein fractions (PPF), albumin preparations, dextran solutions, saline. Used in treatment of autoimmune diseases, immune complex diseases, diseases of excess plasma factors, and other conditions.
Nervous System Autoimmune Disease, Experimental
Experimental animal models for human AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. They include GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME (see NEURITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (see MYASTHENIA GRAVIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL); and MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (see ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, AUTOIMMUNE, EXPERIMENTAL).
The immune system is balanced with cells that respond to microbes by developing into effector cells and cells that regulate the activity of effector cells. In many immune responses a subset of effecto...
Foxp3(+) T regulatory cell (Treg) subsets play a crucial role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis against self-antigens. The lack or dysfunction of these cells contributes to the pathogenesis and...
While B cells are generally considered to be positive regulators of humoral immune responses due to their ability to differentiate into plasmablasts/plasma cells and produce antibodies, B cells also m...
Identifying the regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells led to breaking the dichotomy of Th1/Th2 cells axis in immune responses involved in several autoimmune diseases. It is now well known that Tre...
The immune system is equipped with different checkpoints that ensure the maintenance of immune tolerance to self-antigens and the prevention of autoimmunity. One mechanism of peripheral tolerance invo...
The purpose of this pilot trial is to determine whether a conversion from calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) to a regimen consisting of efalizumab and sirolimus i...
Endometriosis is a chronic disabling inflammatory diseasewhich ffects 15–20% of women in their reproductive life. In patients suffering from endometriosis retrograded menstrual cells in...
This study will determine the biochemical and genetic causes of inherited immune diseases affecting lymphocyte homeostasis. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights infection...
Treatment for patients with autoimmune destruction of blood cells is poor. The part of the body that fights infections is called the immune system and white blood cells (WBCs) are part of...
While glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants ameliorate manifestations of autoimmune diseases in many patients, current therapies are insufficient to control the disease in a subset of pat...