Explaining Lexical Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition.
Summary of "Explaining Lexical Semantic Deficits in Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Phonological Similarity, Phonological Working Memory, and Lexical Competition."
This study investigated potential explanations for sparse lexical-semantic representations in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. The role of auditory perception, phonological working memory and lexical competition were investigated.
Participants included 32 children (ages 8;5-12;3), 16 children with SLI and 16 typically developing age- and nonverbal IQ matched peers (CA). Children's word definitions were investigated. The words to be defined were manipulated for phonological neighborhood density. Nonword repetition and two lexical competition measures were tested as predictors of word definition abilities.
Children with SLI gave word definitions with fewer content details than children in the CA group. Compared to the CA group, the definitions of children in the SLI group were not disproportionately impacted by phonological neighborhood density. Lexical competition was a significant unique predictor of children's word definitions, but nonword repetition was not.
Individual differences in richness of lexical semantic representations as well as differences between children with SLI and typically developing peers may, at least in part, be explained by processes of competition. However, difficulty with auditory perception or phonological working memory does not fully explain difficulties in lexical semantics.
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705746
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2010/08-0198)
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive language (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the frontal lobe (Broca's area and adjacent cortical and white matter regions). The deficits range from almost complete muteness to a reduction in the fluency and rate of speech. CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS (in particular INFARCTION, MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY) are a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp478-9)
Language Development Disorders
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
Primary Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia
A form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a progressive form of dementia characterized by motor speech impairment and AGRAMMATISM, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
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