Serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody concentrations in children treated for acute leukaemia.
Summary of "Serotype-specific pneumococcal antibody concentrations in children treated for acute leukaemia."
Children treated for acute leukaemia are at increased risk of infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The basis for this may include low levels of pneumococcal antibody but this has not been well studied. The authors measured serotype-specific pneumococcal IgG antibody concentrations in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) >/=6 months after completion of standard-dose chemotherapy. Pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG antibody concentrations were low. None of the subjects had protective concentrations against all the heptavalent-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotypes. There was no significant difference in antibody concentrations between subjects with ALL and AML (p>/=0.05). Children treated for ALL and AML generally have non-protective antibody concentrations against S pneumoniae. There is significant morbidity associated with pneumococcal disease in this patient group and strategies for vaccination are required.
Department of Paediatrics, Mayday University Hospital, Croydon, UK.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Archives of disease in childhood
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705722
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/adc.2009.176271
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay
Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
Kidney Failure, Acute
A severe stage of acute renal insufficiency, characterized by the sudden decrease in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min, sometime to less than 1 to 2 ml per min. It is usually associated with OLIGURIA; EDEMA; and increase in BLOOD UREA NITROGEN and serum CREATININE concentrations.
Complement Fixation Tests
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
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