Convergence insufficiency and its current treatment.
Summary of "Convergence insufficiency and its current treatment."
Considerable uncertainty and controversy has existed concerning the management of convergence insufficiency. Only recently there have been significant scientific studies published that compare the effectiveness of the commonly prescribed treatments. This paper reviews the most recent research and literature on convergence insufficiency and its treatment. RECENT
The first large-scale placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials to study the various treatments of convergence insufficiency have recently been published. Current research compares the effectiveness of base-in prism glasses, pencil push-ups, and vision therapy in reducing the signs and symptoms of convergence insufficiency and suggests that orthoptic therapy is the most efficacious treatment for convergence insufficiency.
Intensive orthoptic therapy is the treatment of choice for convergence insufficiency. Pencil push-ups and use of accommodative targets have a role in the treatment of convergence insufficiency when used as part of a more intensive orthoptic program. Base-in prism glasses should be reserved for reduction of symptoms in the presbyopic population.
Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology, Wills Eye Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in ophthalmology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20634696
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0b013e32833cf03a
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels. It is used also for the determination of the near point of convergence (CONVERGENCE, OCULAR). (From Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Electric Stimulation Therapy
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE. The most severe form is KIDNEY FAILURE. Renal function may deteriorate slowly (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, CHRONIC) or precipitously (RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, ACUTE).
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