New technologies in the genetic approach to sudden cardiac death in the young.
Summary of "New technologies in the genetic approach to sudden cardiac death in the young."
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major health problem and constitutes one of the most important unsolved challenges in the practice of forensic pathology due to the failure to determine the cause of death. Particularly, an important number of previously healthy young people who have died suddenly and unexpectedly are consequence of genetic heart disorders, either structural cardiomyopathies or arrhythmogenic abnormalities. The technological approach to analyze this type of genetically heterogeneous disorders is far from easy but nowadays the variety of chemistries and methodologies improves choice. This review offers to the reader a state of the art of the available technologies for the study of genetics of sudden cardiac death, including mutation screening approaches, genome wide association studies, and the recently developed next-generation sequencing.
Genomics Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine and University of Santiago de Compostela, CIBERER, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Genetics of Cardiovascular and Ophthalmologic Diseases, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHU
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Forensic science international
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705407
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2010.07.015
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
A sudden CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA (e.g., VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION) caused by a blunt, non-penetrating impact to the precordial region of chest wall. Commotio cordis often results in sudden death without prompt cardiopulmonary defibrillation.
Autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by cardiac and cutaneous MYXOMAS; LENTIGINOSIS (spotty pigmentation of the skin), and endocrinopathy and its associated endocrine tumors. The cardiac myxomas may lead to SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH and other complications in Carney complex patients. The gene coding for the PRKAR1A protein is one of the causative genetic loci (type 1). A second locus is at chromosome 2p16 (type 2).
An autosomal dominant defect of cardiac conduction that is characterized by an abnormal ST-segment in leads V1-V3 on the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM resembling a right BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK; high risk of VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA; or VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION; SYNCOPAL EPISODE; and possible sudden death. This syndrome is linked to mutations of gene encoding the cardiac SODIUM CHANNEL alpha subunit.