Advances in the systemic treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Summary of "Advances in the systemic treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors."
Constituting about 1-2% of all tumors of the pancreas, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are a subgroup of gastroenetropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) with distinct tumor genetics, biology, and clinicopathological features. Surgical resection is amenable only in a minority of the cases so systemic therapies are considered in most of them. The goals of medical treatment are to control the associated symptoms and signs of the specific tumors and to shrink the tumor mass. Somatostatin analogues can, not only decrease the secretion of peptides and inhibit their functions but also stop tumor growth. Other medical options for limiting tumor growth include interferon, systemic chemotherapy, and targeted therapies including, angiogenesis inhibitors, epidermal growth factor inhibitors, and mTOR inhibitors. Newer agents are tested and the treatment options expected to increase in the near future. Meanwhile optimal use of the available therapeutic strategies is critical.
Hacettepe University Institute of Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara, Turkey.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cancer treatment reviews
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705397
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2010.07.003
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Tumors whose cells possess secretory granules and originate from the neuroectoderm, i.e., the cells of the ectoblast or epiblast that program the neuroendocrine system. Common properties across most neuroendocrine tumors include ectopic hormone production (often via APUD CELLS), the presence of tumor-associated antigens, and isozyme composition.
A group of carcinomas which share a characteristic morphology, often being composed of clusters and trabecular sheets of round "blue cells", granular chromatin, and an attenuated rim of poorly demarcated cytoplasm. Neuroendocrine tumors include carcinoids, small ("oat") cell carcinomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, Merkel cell tumor, cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma, pancreatic islet cell tumors, and pheochromocytoma. Neurosecretory granules are found within the tumor cells. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
A 38-kDa integral membrane glycoprotein of the presynaptic vesicles in neuron and neuroendocrine cells. It is expressed by a variety of normal and neoplastic neuroendocrine cells and is therefore used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation in various tumors. In ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementing disorders, there is an important synapse loss due in part to a decrease of synaptophysin in the presynaptic vesicles.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
PAX (paired box) genes encode a family of transcription factors important for organogenesis. Recently, PAX8 has been recognized as a potential immunohistochemical marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine t...
BACKGROUND: This article reviews the current literature and recommendations pertaining to the management of nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors....
Neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors (NEPT) are relatively infrequent tumors, with an incidence of approximately 1 case per 100.000 inhabitants, representing only 1-2% of pancreatic neoplasms. Localizatio...
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Sunitinib on the clinical benefit response rate.
The investigators aim to explore the efficacy of [90Y-DOTA]-TOC and [177LuDOTA]-TOC therapy in advanced neuroendocrine cancer. Therefore, the investigators investigate response, survival a...
A prospective observational study containing three arms comprising different therapeutic measures to treat patients with neuroendocrine tumors in advanced stages. The therapy arms include...
This study will assess the effectiveness and safety of pasireotide long-acting release in patients who have rare tumors of neuroendocrine origin.
Imaging of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) relies on conventional morphological methods and on somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). SRS is effective for carcinoid tumors, and for most pa...