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Hypotension can be a manifestation of transfusion reactions, including acute hemolysis, bacterial contamination, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and anaphylaxis. In addition to hypotension, these reactions usually present with other characteristic symptoms and signs. In rare cases, hypotension is the only manifestation of a transfusion reaction. This reaction, characterized by early and abrupt onset of hypotension that resolves quickly once the transfusion is stopped, is referred to as acute hypotensive transfusion reaction (AHTR). We report a case of AHTR observed in a patient on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale score indicated that the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy and AHTR was probable. If a patient on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy develops AHTR, it is important to recognize the need to switch to another class of antihypertensive medication, at least while the patient continues to require transfusion.
1Department of Medicine, Cooper University Hospital, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, NJ; 2Department of Medicine, New York Medical College and Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY; and 3Department of Medicine, Kalra Hospital & SRCNC,
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of therapeutics
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A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Complications of BLOOD TRANSFUSION.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
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