Emotional expression, self-silencing, and distress tolerance in anorexia nervosa and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Summary of "Emotional expression, self-silencing, and distress tolerance in anorexia nervosa and chronic fatigue syndrome."
Objectives Difficulties in processing emotional states are implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of diverse health conditions, including anorexia nervosa (AN) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). This study sought to explore distress tolerance, self-silencing, and beliefs regarding the experience and expression of emotions in individuals diagnosed with AN and CFS. These conditions were chosen for this study because their clinical presentation is characterized by physical symptoms, yet cognitive behavioural models suggest that emotional processing difficulties contribute to the aetiology and maintenance of both. Design A between-subjects cross-sectional design was employed. Methods Forty people with AN, 45 with CFS, and 48 healthy controls (HCs) completed the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Silencing the Self Scale (STSS), Beliefs about Emotions Scale (BES), and measures of clinical symptomatology. Results Initial group comparisons found that both AN and CFS participants scored higher than HCs on a subscale measuring difficulties in distress tolerance. AN and CFS participants were also more likely to judge themselves by external standards, endorse statements reflecting a tendency to put the needs of others before themselves, and present an outwardly socially compliant image of themselves whilst feeling hostile within. Relative to HCs, AN participants reported more maladaptive beliefs regarding the experience of having negative thoughts and feelings and revealing these emotions to others, with CFS participants showing a non-significant trend in the same direction. After controlling for differences in age, anxiety, and depression the only significant difference to remain was that observed for the STSS care as self-sacrifice subscale. More maladaptive beliefs about the experience and expression of emotions were associated with greater degree of eating disorder symptomatology in the AN group. Conclusions Differences in emotional processing are present in AN and CFS compared to HCs, with some disorder-specific variation, and may be associated with greater clinical symptomatology. These findings support current explanatory models of both AN and CFS, and suggest that emotional processing should be addressed in the assessment and treatment of individuals with these illnesses.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The British journal of clinical psychology / the British Psychological Society
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20704779
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466510X519215
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
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