Host age, sex, and reproductive seasonality affect nematode parasitism in wild Japanese macaques.
Summary of "Host age, sex, and reproductive seasonality affect nematode parasitism in wild Japanese macaques."
Parasites are characteristically aggregated within hosts, but identifying the mechanisms underlying such aggregation can be difficult in wildlife populations. We examined the influence of host age and sex over an annual cycle on the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) of nematode parasites infecting wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island. Five species of nematode were recorded from 434 fecal samples collected from an age-structured group of 50 individually recognizable macaques. All parasites exhibited aggregated EPG distributions. The age-infection profiles of all three directly transmitted species (Oesophagostomum aculeatum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, and Trichuris trichiura) exhibited convex curves, but concavity better characterized the age-infection curves of the two trophically transmitted species (Streptopharagus pigmentatus and Gongylonema pulchrum). There was a male bias in EPG and prevalence of infection with directly transmitted species, except in the prevalence of O. aculeatum, and no sex bias in the other parasites. Infection with O. aculeatum showed a female bias in prevalence among young adults, and additional interactions with sex and seasonality show higher EPG values in males during the mating season (fall) but in females during the birth season (spring). These patterns suggest that an immunosuppressive role by reproductive hormones may be regulating direct, but not indirect, life-cycle parasites. Exposure at an early age may trigger an immune response that affects all nematodes, but trophically transmitted species appear to accumulate thereafter. Although it is difficult to discern clear mechanistic explanations for parasite distributions in wildlife populations, it is critical to begin examining these patterns in host species that are increasingly endangered by anthropogenic threats.
Section of Social Systems Evolution, Department of Ecology and Social Behavior, Kyoto University Primate Research Institute, 41-2 Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi, 484-8506, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Primates; journal of primatology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20711744
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-010-0211-9
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes serious damage and yield losses in numerous important crops worldwide. Analysis of the M. incognita genome revealed a vast number of proteases belon...
The deep sea is Earth's largest habitat but little is known about the nature of deep-sea parasitism. In contrast to a few characterized cases of bacterial and protistan parasites, the existence and bi...
One of the main challenges in evolutionary parasitology is to determine the factors that explain variation among host species in parasitism. In this study, we addressed whether host phylogeny or ecolo...
[This corrects the article on p. e69579 in vol. 8.].
Rates of brood parasitism vary extensively among host species and populations of a single host species. In this study, we documented and compared parasitism rates of two sympatric hosts, the Oriental...
Primary Objectives: 1. To determine the maximum tolerated dose and transduction efficiency of adenoviral mediated wild type p53 gene transfer in premalignancies of the upper aerodi...
This study examines the efficacy of the "Preconception Reproductive Knowledge Promotion (PREKNOP)" intervention, designed to promote women's reproductive health and positive pregnancy outc...
The investigators are seeking subjects for a study of the role of kisspeptin in the reproductive system. Kisspeptin is a naturally occuring hormone in humans that stimulates the production...
This study is to assess the safety and immunogenicity of three consecutive lots of JE-CV in toddlers aged 12-18 months. Primary objective: To demonstrate the bio-equivalence of thr...
The objective of the trial was to establish the dose-response of T2 in Japanese and Caucasian Subjects. Part A: Japanese Subjects
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the peritoneal cavity of wild or domestic cattle or equines.
A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).