Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Parasites are characteristically aggregated within hosts, but identifying the mechanisms underlying such aggregation can be difficult in wildlife populations. We examined the influence of host age and sex over an annual cycle on the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) of nematode parasites infecting wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) on Yakushima Island. Five species of nematode were recorded from 434 fecal samples collected from an age-structured group of 50 individually recognizable macaques. All parasites exhibited aggregated EPG distributions. The age-infection profiles of all three directly transmitted species (Oesophagostomum aculeatum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, and Trichuris trichiura) exhibited convex curves, but concavity better characterized the age-infection curves of the two trophically transmitted species (Streptopharagus pigmentatus and Gongylonema pulchrum). There was a male bias in EPG and prevalence of infection with directly transmitted species, except in the prevalence of O. aculeatum, and no sex bias in the other parasites. Infection with O. aculeatum showed a female bias in prevalence among young adults, and additional interactions with sex and seasonality show higher EPG values in males during the mating season (fall) but in females during the birth season (spring). These patterns suggest that an immunosuppressive role by reproductive hormones may be regulating direct, but not indirect, life-cycle parasites. Exposure at an early age may trigger an immune response that affects all nematodes, but trophically transmitted species appear to accumulate thereafter. Although it is difficult to discern clear mechanistic explanations for parasite distributions in wildlife populations, it is critical to begin examining these patterns in host species that are increasingly endangered by anthropogenic threats.
Section of Social Systems Evolution, Department of Ecology and Social Behavior, Kyoto University Primate Research Institute, 41-2 Kanrin, Inuyama, Aichi, 484-8506, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Primates; journal of primatology
Beneficial root endophytes such as Trichoderma spp. can reduce infections by parasitic nematodes through triggering host defences. Little is currently known about the complex hormone signalling underl...
More than half of the described species of the phylum Nematoda are considered parasitic, making them one of the most successful groups of parasites. Nematodes are capable of inhabiting a wide variety ...
Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel (branched broomrape) is a holoparasitic plant that reproduces on crops and also on weeds, which contributes to increase the parasite seed bank in fields. This parasite ex...
India is endemic to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and recurrent outbreaks occur mainly in rice growing areas. Pigs are considered to be the amplifying host for JEV and infection in gestating pigs ...
Exploitation of sexual signals by predators or parasites increases costs to signalers, creating opportunities for establishment of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). In field crickets, males cal...
This study will investigate whether the combination of PF-05212384 plus Irinotecan improves progression free survival in patients with KRAS and NRAS wild type metastatic colorectal cancer ...
The purpose of the study is to collate local information to better understand the motivations, accessibility and frequency of assisted reproductive technology (ART) use in the community.
This study aims to provide evidence that co-administration of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) and live attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine (CD-JEV) does not adversely a...
This study examines the efficacy of the "Preconception Reproductive Knowledge Promotion (PREKNOP)" intervention, designed to promote women's reproductive health and positive pregnancy outc...
This phase Ib trial studies the safety and best dose of wild-type reovirus in combination with bortezomib and dexamethasone and to see how well they work in treating patients with multiple...
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A genus of parasitic nematodes found in the peritoneal cavity of wild or domestic cattle or equines.
A genus of parasitic nematode worms which infest the duodenum and stomach of domestic and wild herbivores, which ingest it with the grasses (POACEAE) they eat. Infestation of man is accidental.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...