Mechanisms of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux events in obstructive sleep apnea.
Summary of "Mechanisms of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux events in obstructive sleep apnea."
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nocturnal GER) events and symptoms. Treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces nocturnal GER in patients with OSA. This study sought to determine the: (1) relationship of nocturnal GER events with apnea/hypopnea and arousal, (2) effect of upper airway obstruction on the barrier function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), (3) mechanism of LES failure for each nocturnal GER event and (4) effect of CPAP on LES function during sleep.
Eight patients with OSA and nocturnal GER underwent polysomnography with esophageal manometry and pH monitoring. The first half of the night was spent without CPAP and the second half with 10 cmH(2)O CPAP.
Baseline LES barrier pressure (P (b)) was low in these patients. When patients were off CPAP, there were 2.7 +/- 1.8 nocturnal GER events per hour and 70 +/- 39 obstructive respiratory events per hour. There was no direct relationship between the occurrence of GER and obstructive events. While upper airway obstruction did not alter P (b), CPAP tended to increase the nadir P (b) during LES relaxation (LESR) and decreased the duration of LESR.
Upper airway obstructive and nocturnal GER events are not directly related. The relatively low P (b) in these OSA patients raises the possibility of weakening of the gastroesophageal junction from repetitive strain associated with obstructed breathing events. The favourable effect of CPAP on nocturnal GER is possibly due to an increase in nadir P (b) and decrease in the duration for which the LES relaxes during swallow-induced and transient LESR.
West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute, Department of Pulmonary Physiology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, 6009, Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20711680
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11325-010-0404-x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
Sleep Apnea, Obstructive
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
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