The influence of heroin abuse on glutathione-dependent enzymes in human brain.
Summary of "The influence of heroin abuse on glutathione-dependent enzymes in human brain."
Heroin is an illicit narcotic abused by millions of people worldwide. In our earlier studies we have shown that heroin intoxication changes the antioxidant status in human brain. In the present work we continued our studies by estimating the effect of heroin abuse on reduced glutathione (GSH) and enzymes related to this cofactor, such as glutathione S-transferase detoxifying electrophilics (GST) and organic peroxides (as Se-independent glutathione peroxidase-GSHPx), and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSHPx) specific mainly for hydrogen peroxide. Studies were conducted on human brains obtained from autopsy of 9 heroin abusers and 8 controls. The level of GSH and the activity of glutathione-related enzymes were determined spectrophotometrically. The expression of GST pi on mRNA and protein level was studied by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results indicated significant increase of GST and GSHPx activities, unchanged Se-GSHPx activity, and decreased level of GSH in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortex, brain stem, hippocampus, and white matter of heroin abusers. GST pi expression was increased on both mRNA and protein levels, however the increase was lower in brain stem than in other regions. Heroin affects all regions of human brain, and especially brain stem. Its intoxication leads to an increase of organic rather then inorganic peroxides in various brain regions. Glutathione S-transferase plays an important role during heroin intoxication, however its protective effect is lower in brain stem than in brain cortex or hippocampus.
Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Drug and alcohol dependence
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20709470
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.06.020
Lead poisoning has been known to be associated with structural and functional abnormalities of multiple organ systems of human body. The aim of this investigation was to study the renal protective eff...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a morphine-conjugate vaccine (M-KLH) on the acquisition, maintenance, and reinstatement of heroin self-administration (HSA) in rats, and on her...
Heroin abuse is a significant public health issue and is on the rise due to the unintended consequences of strengthening controls for non-medical use of prescription pain killers. Included in this tre...
ABSTRACT Background: Tropicamide is an antimuscarinic ophthalmic solution used to produce short-acting mydriasis and cycloplegia. Topical abuse of ophthalmic solutions has been reported, but intraveno...
Glutathione transferase (GST) enzymes catalyze the conjugation of glutathione with reactive functional groups of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, including halonitroaromatics. 1-Chloro -2,4-dinit...
This research study takes place at Wayne State University and will take about 11 weeks to complete. This is a treatment research study for individuals who currently have cocaine abuse or d...
The number of new heroin users and problems associated with heroin use have increased steadily over the past several years. Currently, naltrexone is one of the drugs used to treat heroin ...
The purpose of this study is to assess the abuse liability and reinforcing effects of intravenous buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone combinations in heroin-dependent volunteers
Dependence on heroin is a major public health problem because of its association with criminality, law enforcement costs and healthcare costs. Managed withdrawal is a required first step ...
Background: Although some treatments for substance abuse are considered effective for some people who are drug dependent, many others do not benefit as much over time. Researchers are wor...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutathione from gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 184.108.40.206.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 220.127.116.11.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 18.104.22.168.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.
A glutathione transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to GLUTATHIONE. This enzyme has been shown to provide cellular protection against redox-mediated damage by FREE RADICALS.