Irinotecan plus S-1 (IRIS) versus fluorouracil and folinic acid plus irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomised phase 2/3 non-inferiority study (FIRIS study).
Summary of "Irinotecan plus S-1 (IRIS) versus fluorouracil and folinic acid plus irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer: a randomised phase 2/3 non-inferiority study (FIRIS study)."
Fluorouracil and folinic acid with either oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or irinotecan (FOLFIRI) are widely used as first-line or second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. However, infusional fluorouracil-based regimens, requiring continuous infusion and implantation of an intravenous port system, are inconvenient. We therefore planned an open-label randomised controlled trial to verify the non-inferiority of irinotecan plus oral S-1 (a combination of tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine, and potassium oxonate; IRIS) to FOLFIRI as second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.
Between Jan 30, 2006, and Jan 29, 2008, 426 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer needing second-line chemotherapy from 40 institutions in Japan were randomly assigned by a computer-based minimisation method to receive either FOLFIRI (n=213) or IRIS (n=213). In the FOLFIRI group, patients received folinic acid (200 mg/m(2)) and irinotecan (150 mg/m(2)) and then a bolus injection of fluorouracil (400 mg/m(2)) on day 1 and a continuous infusion of fluorouracil (2400 mg/m(2)) over 46 h, repeated every 2 weeks. In the IRIS group, patients received irinotecan (125 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 15 and S-1 (40-60 mg according to body surface area) twice daily for 2 weeks, repeated every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, with a non-inferiority margin of 1.333. Statistical analysis was on the basis of initially randomised participants. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00284258.
All randomised patients were included in the primary analysis. After a median follow-up of 12.9 months (IQR 11.5-18.2), median progression-free survival was 5.1 months in the FOLFIRI group and 5.8 months in the IRIS group (hazard ratio 1.077, 95% CI 0.879-1.319, non-inferiority test p=0.039). The most common grade three or four adverse drug reactions were neutropenia (110 [52.1%] of 211 patients in the FOLFIRI group and 76 [36.2%] of 210 patients in the IRIS group; p=0.0012), leucopenia (33 [15.6%] in the FOLFIRI group and 38 [18.1%] in the IRIS group; p=0.5178), and diarrhoea (ten [4.7%] in the FOLFIRI group and 43 [20.5%] in the IRIS group; p<0.0001). One treatment-related death from hypotension due to shock was reported in the FOLFIRI group within 28 days after the end of treatment; no treatment-related deaths were reported in the IRIS group.
Progression-free survival with IRIS is not inferior to that with FOLFIRI in patients receiving second-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Treatment with IRIS could be an additional therapeutic option for second-line chemotherapy in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Taiho Pharmaceutical Co Ltd and Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd.
Aichi Cancer Centre Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The lancet oncology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20708966
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70181-9
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as its calcium salt as an antidote to folic acid antagonists which block the conversion of folic acid to folinic acid.
Tumors of the iris characterized by increased pigmentation of melanocytes. Iris nevi are composed of proliferated melanocytes and are associated with neurofibromatosis and malignant melanoma of the choroid and ciliary body. Malignant melanoma of the iris often originates from preexisting nevi.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Iridocorneal Endothelial Syndrome
A grouping of three closely linked conditions: iris nevus (or Cogan-Reese) syndrome, Chandler Syndrome, and essential (progressive) iris atrophy. The most common features of this syndrome are the movement of endothelial cells off the cornea onto the iris leading to corneal swelling, distortion of the iris, and variable degrees of distortion of the pupil. The abnormal cell movement plugs fluid outflow channels of the eye causing GLAUCOMA.
Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Small bowel adenocarcinoma is a rare malignancy associated with a poor prognosis and there is little evidence of effective treatment. Recurrent small bowel adenocarcinoma is an...
Multicenter, randomized phase II trial of bevacizumab plus folinic acid, fluorouracil, gemcitabine (FFG) versus bevacizumab plus folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) as first-line therapy for patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
Purpose To assess safety and efficacy of folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine (FFG) and folinic acid, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) regimens with added bevacizumab as first-line treatment i...
Hepatotoxic side effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal liver metastases increase perioperative morbidity and mortality. Glycine protects liver from injury in various animal models. Thus,...
Background. In Japan, a study comparing the effectiveness and safety of irinotecan plus S-1 (IRIS) with those of a combination of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) as second-line tr...
Palliative first-line therapy with weekly high-dose 5-fluorouracil and sodium folinic acid as a 24-hour infusion (AIO regimen) combined with weekly irinotecan in patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach or esophagogastric junction followed b
Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of weekly high-dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/folinic acid (FA) as 24-h infusion (AIO regimen) plus irinotecan in pa...
The FIRE-3 trial is a multicenter randomized phase III trial investigating 5-FU, folinic acid and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus cetuximab versus FOLFIRI plus bevacizumab in first line treatmen...
The main objective of this trial is to explore the effect of combining an established chemotherapy regimen (FLOX), based on 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid, and oxaliplatin (Eloxatin®), with...
Monotherapy treatment with CS-7017 to assess progression-free-survival (PFS) of subjects who achieved an objective response of Disease Control on first line therapy with Folinic acid (leuc...
To see if Disease Free Survival (DFS) is improved when complete surgical resection of liver metastases (R0) is followed by chemotherapy with CPT-11 and 5-FU/FA as FOLFIRI regimen, compared...
Drugs used against cancer work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Monoclonal antibodies, such as cetuximab,...