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To clarify the clinical features of patients with epilepsy and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Methods: We examined 12 outpatients with epilepsy as well as PDD at Seiai Rehabilitation Hospital. Results: The patients comprised 7 males and 5 females. The initial neurological symptoms appeared between 5months and 4years of age. The interval between the initial neurological symptoms/developmental delay and seizure onset ranged from several months to twenty years. The seizures started at 10-19years of age in 8 out of the 12 cases. The types of seizures were astatic-drop in 2 cases, tonic-to-astatic in one, atypical absence (decreased consciousness) and generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) in 3 cases, GTCS in 4 cases, or myoclonic and psychomotor in 2 cases. The mental development distributed from normal to extremely severe retardation. Paroxysmal abnormalities on eegs were focal at the frontal area in 7 cases (58%) and other findings in 5 cases. Presumptive risk factors were prenatal in 6 cases (family history for PDD in 1 case, for epilepsy in 1, twin pregnancy in 2 cases, and other in 2 cases), perinatal in 2 patients, postnatal in 1, and unknown in 3 cases. Conclusions: The seizures occurred most frequently after the onset of neurological symptoms or developmental delay. The frontal lobe dysfunction was associated with seizure onset in 58% of the cases based on the EEG findings. The risk factors were prenatal in 50% of the cases.
Department of Neurology (Pediatrics), Seiai Rehabilitation Hospital, Onojo, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Brain & development
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A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
Rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle which leads to the accumulation of argininosuccinic acid in body fluids and severe HYPERAMMONEMIA. Clinical features of the neonatal onset of the disorder include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, tachypnea, coma, and death. Later onset results in milder set of clinical features including vomiting, failure to thrive, irritability, behavioral problems, or psychomotor retardation. Mutations in the ARGININOSUCCINATE LYASE gene cause the disorder.
A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)
A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
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Epilepsy is defined as a disorder of brain function characterized by recurrent seizures that have a sudden onset. (Oxford Medical Dictionary). A seizure is caused by a sudden burst of excess electrical activity in the brain, causing a tempora...
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