Longitudinal investigation of Clostridium difficile shedding in piglets.
Summary of "Longitudinal investigation of Clostridium difficile shedding in piglets."
A longitudinal study of C. difficile colonization in piglets was performed on one conventional swine farm in Ontario, Canada. Fecal samples were collected from 10 sows prior to their expected farrowing date, and then from all their piglets on days 2, 7, 30, 44 and 62 of life. Clostridium difficile was isolated from 4/10 (40%) of sows prior to farrowing, 90/121 (74%) piglets on day 2, 66/117 (56%) on day 7, 45/113 (40%) on day 30, 23/101 (23%) on day 44 and 2/54 (3.7%) on day 62. There was a significant decrease in colonization over time (P<0.0001). Overall, C. difficile was isolated from one or more samples from 116/121 (96%) piglets. There was an inverse association between sow colonization and piglet colonization on day 2 (P<0.0001) and a positive association on day 7 (P=0.001). Ribotype 078/toxinotype V predominated, accounting for 213/234 (91%) isolates. A toxinotype XIV strain that has been previously found in humans in the province was the 2(nd) most common, but was mainly found in sows, not piglets. Overall, 227/234 (97%) of isolates were from types that have been isolated from humans in the province. Intermittent colonization was detected in 11 (9.6%) piglets. The decline in C. difficile colonization over the first 2 months of life was remarkable. The variation in colonization over a relatively short period of time has important implications for the design and interpretation of studies evaluating C. difficile colonization in pigs, since relatively small differences in age may have a major confounding effect on the prevalence of colonization. The decline in prevalence over time may also have implications on public health concerns, since colonization rates of animals at the time of slaughter are presumably more relevant than those earlier in life.
Depts of Pathobiology (Weese, Rousseau) and Population Medicine (Wakeford, Friendship), University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada; Public Health Agency of Canada (Reid-Smith), Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
This article was published in the following journal.
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20708700
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2010.08.001
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Disease caused by the liberation of exotoxins of CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS in the intestines of sheep, goats, cattle, foals, and piglets. Type B enterotoxemia in lambs is lamb dysentery; type C enterotoxemia in mature sheep produces "struck", and in calves, lambs and piglets it produces hemorrhagic enterotoxemia; type D enterotoxemia in sheep and goats is pulpy-kidney disease or overeating disease.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.
Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
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