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Herein we describe a large-scale commercial program for in vitro production of embryos from dairy Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and indicus-taurus donors, using sexed sperm. From 5,407 OPU, we compared the number of recovered oocytes (n = 90,086), viable oocytes (n = 64,826), and embryos produced in vitro from Gir (Bos indicus, n = 617), Holstein (Bos taurus, n = 180), 1/4 Holstein x 3/4 Gir (n = 44), and 1/2 Holstein-Gir (n = 37) crossbred cows, and the pregnancy rate of recipient cows. Viable oocytes were in vitro matured (24 h at 38.8 degrees C, 5% CO(2) in air) and fertilized by incubating them for 18 to 20 h with frozen-thawed sexed sperm (X-chromosome bearing) from Gir (n = 8) or Holstein (n = 7) sires (2 x 10(6) sperm/dose). Embryos were cultured in similar conditions of temperature and atmosphere as for IVM, with variable intervals of culture (between Days 2 and 5) completed in a portable incubator. All embryos were transferred fresh, after 24 to 72 h of transportation (up to 2,000 km). On average, 16.7 +/- 6.3 oocytes (mean +/- SEM) were obtained per OPU procedure and 72.0% were considered viable. Total and viable oocytes per OPU procedure were 17.1 +/- 4.5 and 12.1 +/- 3.9 for Gir cows, 11.4 +/- 3.9 and 8.0 +/- 2.7 for Holstein cows, 20.4 +/- 5.8 and 16.8 +/- 5.0 for 1/4 Holstein x 3/4 Gir, and 31.4 +/- 5.6 and 24.3 +/- 4.7 for 1/2 Holstein-Gir crossbred females (P < 0.01). The mean number of embryos produced by OPU/IVF and the pregnancy rates were 3.2 (12,243/ 3,778) and 40% for Gir cows, 2.1 (2,426/1,138) and 36% for Holstein cows, 3.9 (1,033/267) and 37% for 1/4 Holstein x 3/4 Gir, and 5.5 (1,222/224), and 37% for 1/2 Holstein-Gir. In conclusion, we compared oocyte yield from two levels of indicus-taurus breeds and demonstrated the efficiency of sexed sperm for in vitro embryo production. Culturing embryos during long distance transportation was successful, with potential for international movement of embryos.
Laboratório de Reprodução Animal, DCV-CCA-UEL, Londrina PR, 86051-990 Brazil; In Vitro Brasil Ltda. Mogi Mirim SP, 13800-970 Brazil.
This article was published in the following journal.
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The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The large scale production of pharmaceutically important and commercially valuable RECOMBINANT PROTEINS.
Round-shaped structure usually located in the upper fundus of the UTERUS in early pregnancy. It comprises EMBRYO; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and YOLK SAC. It is visible in PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY by the fifth week of pregnancy. Its size is often used to determine and monitor GESTATIONAL AGE; FETAL GROWTH; and PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS.
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