Phentermine, topiramate and their combination for the treatment of adiposopathy ('sick fat') and metabolic disease.
Summary of "Phentermine, topiramate and their combination for the treatment of adiposopathy ('sick fat') and metabolic disease."
Positive caloric balance often causes pathologic adipocyte and adipose tissue anatomical and functional changes (termed adiposopathy or 'sick fat'), which may lead to pathogenic adipocyte and adipose tissue responses and metabolic disease. Fat weight loss may improve adiposopathy, and thus improve metabolic disease in overweight patients. Unfortunately, the efficacy of non-surgical weight loss therapies is often limited due to redundant physiological systems that help 'protect' against starvation and/or negative caloric balance. One strategy to overcome these limitations is to combine weight loss drug therapies having complementary mechanisms of action, thereby affecting more than one physiologic process influencing body fat accumulation. Phentermine is a noradrenergic sympathomimetic amine approved for short-term treatment of obesity. Topiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide derivative of the naturally occurring sugar monosaccharide D-fructose approved as a treatment for migraine headaches and seizure disorders. Although known to facilitate weight loss since its approval, topiramate monotherapy does not have a regulatory indication as an anti-obesity agent. Phentermine HCl/topiramate controlled-release (PHEN/TPM CR) is a combination agent containing immediate-release phentermine and controlled-release topiramate. Clinical trials involving thousands of patients demonstrate PHEN/TPM CR to be effective in improving the weight of patients, and also effective in improving adiposopathy-associated metabolic diseases. This review examines the pathophysiology of adiposopathy as a contributor to metabolic disease, the data supporting phentermine monotherapy, topiramate monotherapy and their combination as anti-obesity and anti-adiposopathy agents, and the preliminary evidence supporting PHEN/TPM CR as a generally well-tolerated and effective agent to improve metabolic disease.
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Name: Expert review of cardiovascular therapy
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. It has been used most frequently in the treatment of obesity.
An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
Brain Diseases, Metabolic
Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.
Metabolic Syndrome X
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
To evaluate safety and efficacy of phentermine 15 mg plus extended-release topiramate 92 mg for treatment of moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese adults.
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