Animal models of the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome.
Summary of "Animal models of the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome."
Cancer cachexia, a complex wasting syndrome, is common in palliative medicine. Animal models expand our understanding of its mechanisms. A review of cancer cachexia and anorexia animal models will help investigators make an informed choice of the study model. RESULTS AND
Cancer-anorexia cachexia animal models are numerous. No one is ideal. The choice should depend on the research question. To investigate cancer-anorexia cachexia independent of pro-inflammatory cytokine effects, the MAC16 ADK and XK1 are useful. MAC16 ADK helps study the host's tumor metabolic effects, independent of any anorexia or inflammation. XK1 is both anorectic and cachectic, but data about it is limited. All other models induce a host inflammatory response. The Walker 256 ADK and MCG 101 are best avoided due to excessive tumor growth. Since individual models do not address all aspects of the syndrome, use of a combination seems wise. Suggested combinations: MAC16-ADK (non-inflammatory and non-anorectic) with YAH-130 (inflammatory, anorectic, and cachectic), Lewis lung carcinoma (slow onset anorexia) or prostate adenocarcinoma (inflammatory, anorectic but not cachectic) with YAH-130.
Section of Palliative Medicine and Suppportive Oncology, The Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20714754
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-010-0972-0
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Disease Models, Animal
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple
A hereditary disease characterized by multiple ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal nevoid and neoplastic anomalies. Facial trichilemmomas and papillomatous papules of the oral mucosa are the most characteristic lesions. Individuals with this syndrome have a high risk of BREAST CANCER; THYROID CANCER; and ENDOMETRIAL CANCER. This syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene for PTEN PHOSPHATASE.
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
Introduction: Anorexia and cachexia syndrome represents a complex clinical picture that occurs in the late stage of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including cancer. Unless counteracted cancer-...
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anorexia is a severe debilitating symptom characterizing the clinical course of several chronic diseases. It negatively impacts on patient outcome by contributing to weight loss, le...
Cachexia is a syndrome of wasting and anorexia that worsens the prognosis of many chronic diseases including cancer, chronic kidney disease, chronic heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary dis...
About half of all cancer patients show a syndrome of cachexia, characterized by anorexia and loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass. Cachexia can have a profound impact on quality of life, sy...
Despite the development of consensus-based frameworks to define cancer cachexia, the validity and usefulness of these frameworks are relatively unknown. The aim of the present study was to study the p...
RATIONALE: Etanercept is a substance that is being studied as a treatment for cachexia (weight loss) and anorexia (lack of appetite) in patients who have cancer. It is not yet known whethe...
Anorexia and cachexia are devastating complications in late-stage cancer patients and is strongly associated with mortality in these patients. Activation of Ghrelin receptors have been de...
Activation of Ghrelin receptors have been demonstrated to stimulate appetite. RC-1291 HCl, by virture of its ghrelin like activity and Growth Hormone releasing effects may have a dual role...
To compare the effects of megestrol acetate and placebo on body weight, anorexia, cachexia, calorie intake, and nutritional parameters of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of AIDS. To de...
The goal of this clinical research study is to evaluate the effectiveness of melatonin for the management of poor appetite and weight loss in advanced cancer patients. The effectiveness o...