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We demonstrate the first (to the best of our knowledge) depletion-mode carrier-plasma optical modulator fabricated in a standard advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic process (45 nm node SOI CMOS) with no process modifications. The zero-change CMOS photonics approach enables this device to be monolithically integrated into state-of-the-art microprocessors and advanced electronics. Because these processes support lateral p-n junctions but not efficient ridge waveguides, we accommodate these constraints with a new type of resonant modulator. It is based on a hybrid microring/disk cavity formed entirely in the sub-90 nm thick monocrystalline silicon transistor body layer. Electrical contact of both polarities is made along the inner radius of the multimode ring cavity via an array of silicon spokes. The spokes connect to p and n regions formed using transistor well implants, which form radially extending lateral junctions that provide index modulation. We show 5 Gbps data modulation at 1265 nm wavelength with 5.2 dB extinction ratio and an estimated 40 fJ/bit energy consumption. Broad thermal tuning is demonstrated across 3.2 THz (18 nm) with an efficiency of 291 GHz/mW. A single postprocessing step to remove the silicon handle wafer was necessary to support low-loss optical confinement in the device layer. This modulator is an important step toward monolithically integrated CMOS photonic interconnects.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Optics letters
The optical studies of high-temperature superconducting cuprates (HTSC) are reviewed. From the doping dependence of room temperature spectra, a dramatic change of the electronic state from a Mott (cha...
We propose a novel and simple 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) optical-wireless integration system, in which optical independent-sideband modulation enabled by an in-phase/quadrature (I/Q) m...
The tuning of structural, optical, and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films deposited by atomic layer deposition technique is reported in this work. With the increasing Al doping level, the evo...
In this paper we address a significant limitation of silicon as an optical material, namely, the upper bound of its potential modulation frequency. This arises due to finite carrier mobility, which fu...
We present a theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of an electro-optic double resonant modulator based on interaction of fundamental whispering gallery modes with a radio frequency field in a...
Multicentric non-randomized phase II opened prospective study (10 centres involved). Primary endpoint: - To evaluate the kinetics of B-cell depletion by rituximab and its pharmacokine...
White light endoscopy remains the gold standard technique to evaluate gastrointestinal tract. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is defined as presence of reflux symptoms (heartburn an...
Optical Enhancement Technology might be superior to the conventional HD-WL in detecting colorectal adenomas
Leukocyte depletion of autologous whole blood prior to storage does not reduce infection rate (wound, urinary tract, other), use of antibiotic treatment and length of hospital stay but may...
Based on pilot patient observations, and experience from the prior study KTS-1-2008, the investigators anticipate that severely affected chronic fatigue syndrome patients may benefit from ...
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
A site on an enzyme which upon binding of a modulator, causes the enzyme to undergo a conformational change that may alter its catalytic or binding properties.
An enzyme of long-chain fatty acid synthesis, that adds a two-carbon unit from malonyl-(acyl carrier protein) to another molecule of fatty acyl-(acyl carrier protein), giving a beta-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) with the release of carbon dioxide. EC 22.214.171.124.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein]. It has a preference for acyl groups with a carbon chain length between 4 to 16.
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body's cells (in animals) – such as nutrients and oxygen – and transports waste products away from those same cells. In vertebrates, it is composed of blo...
A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test performed to aid in the diagnosis or detection of disease. For example: to diagnose diseases to measure the progress or recovery from disease to confirm that a person is free from disease Clin...