Hepatitis C Increases the Risk of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Glomerulonephritis.
Summary of "Hepatitis C Increases the Risk of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients with Glomerulonephritis."
Background/Aims: We have shown that hepatitis C does not increase the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD), but it is not known if hepatitis C worsens progression of existing CKD. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with primary glomerulonephritis on biopsy over 4 years, evaluating the progression of CKD over time. Results: The cohort consisted of 111 patients: 21% were positive for hepatitis C, 61% were negative for hepatitis C and 18% were not tested. The hepatitis C-positive subjects were more likely to be African American (p = 0.031), followed for fewer days (p = 0.007) and have diabetes and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on biopsy (p < 0.001). Longitudinal follow-up of CKD progression using multiple creatinine measures analyzed by repeated measures ANCOVA demonstrated that patients with hepatitis C had a worsening creatinine over time compared to the hepatitis C-negative and not tested groups (p < 0.001). By Cox hazards regression analyses, risk of death/end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was decreased in patients who tested negative for hepatitis C compared to testing positive (0.46, CI 0.27-0.88), but this became nonsignificant after adjustment for mean arterial pressure and hemoglobin. Conclusion: Our results support that infection with hepatitis C in patients with glomerulonephritis is associated with an increased risk of progression of CKD. Prospective studies are required to confirm these observations.
Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Ind., USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of nephrology
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Kidney Failure, Chronic
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
Hepatitis Delta Virus
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Hepatitis C, Chronic
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
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