Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
Despite the nearly worldwide distribution of Lepidoptera, there are few species with clear documentation of adverse reactions in humans. Most syndromes caused by Lepidoptera are consequences of direct contact with the hairs or setae of caterpillars. In most instances, the adverse effects caused by moth and caterpillars are self-limited and the treatment is based on the removal of hairs, application of topical antipruritics and, in some cases, the use of oral antihistamines. However, in the case of envenoming by South American Lonomiaobliqua caterpillars, the antilonomic serum produced at Instituto Butantan in Brazil is the only effective treatment to re-establish the physiological coagulation parameters in poisoned patients and to abolish the complications seen in severe cases (e.g. consumptive coagulopathy, intracerebral hemorrhage, and acute renal failure). Many studies have been carried out to understand the pathophysiological mechanism of envenoming by L. obliqua. Several toxic principles were found in bristle extract and the hemolymph, probably related to the envenoming. An interesting fact is that some toxins from the venom usually have more than one function. With the advent of molecular biology techniques it has become possible to analyze these processes at a molecular level, thus giving rise to hypotheses on the molecular basis of envenomation. This review contributes to enhance our understanding of the dramatic alterations that hemorrhagic syndrome causes in patients, current treatment, and the diversity of the molecules involved in this pathology.
Biochemistry and Biophysics Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pathophysiology of haemostasis and thrombosis
Lonomia obliqua (Walker, 1855) is a moth from the family Saturniidae, widely distributed in tropical rainforests of South America. In its larval stage (caterpillar) it is characterized by bristles tha...
Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin is a key mediator of gas gangrene, which is a life-threatening infection that manifests as fever, pain, edema, myonecrosis, and gas production. Alpha-toxin possesse...
Conditional cooperativity is a common mechanism involved in transcriptional regulation of prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin operons and is intricately related to bacterial persistence. It allows the...
We aimed to investigate neurophysiological and clinical effects of common krait envenoming, including the time course and treatment response.
Botulism is a severe form of food poisoning caused by bacteria. This bacteria produces several toxins one of which is botulinum toxin A. This toxin causes the symptoms of food poisoning....
Humeral lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow is a common painful elbow disorder. The cause of tennis elbow is the chronic overload of bone-tendon junction. High prevalence of tennis elbow...
This study examines botulinum toxin (BOTOX, or BTX) for the treatment of muscle twitches and spasticity associated with cerebral palsy in children. Botulinum toxin is a naturally occurring...
Botulinum toxin injections are a common form of treatment for children with cerebral palsy to help reduce muscle tightness and help them walk without resorting to surgery. While the treatm...
According to high rate of vaginismus (about 10 percent) which leads to unconsummated marriage (about 1 percent) and low efficacy for conventional treatments such as biofeedback therapy, an...
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.
Toxicoses caused by toxic substances secreted by the salivary glands of ticks; include tick paralysis (neurotropic toxin), sweating sickness (dermotropic toxin), and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus toxicosis (leukotropic toxin).
A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Nephrology - kidney function
Nephrology is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the study of normal kidney function, kidney problems, the treatment of kidney problems and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation). Systemic conditions...