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Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the epithelial cells of the intrahepatic, perihilar and extrahepatic bile ducts. Patients diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma must be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team and be treated with individualized management. First of all, it is very important to define the potential resectability of the tumor because surgery is the main therapeutic option for these patients. Overall, cholangiocarcinomas have a very poor prognosis. The 5-year survival rate is 5%-10%. In cases with a potentially curative surgery, 5-year survival rates of 25%-30% are reported. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the cure rate from surgery, exploring the survival benefit of any adjuvant strategy. It is difficult to clarify the role of adjuvant treatment in localized and locally advanced cholangiocarcinomas. There are limited data and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy/chemoradiation in patients with resected biliary tract cancer is poorly defined. The most relevant studies in the adjuvant setting are one from Japan, the well known ESPAC-3 and BILCAP from the United Kingdom and a meta-analysis. We show the results of these trials. According to medical oncology guidelines, postoperative adjuvant therapy is widely recommended for all patients with intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma who have microscopically positive resection margins, as well as for those with a complete resection but node-positive disease. Clinical trials are ongoing. The locally advanced cholangiocarcinoma setting includes a heterogeneous mix of patients: (1) patients who have had surgery but with macroscopic residual disease; (2) patients with locally recurrent disease after potentially curative treatment; and (3) patients with locally unresectable disease at presentation. In these patients, surgery is not an option and chemoradiation therapy can prolong overall survival and provide control of symptoms due to local tumor effects. Nowadays, no neoadjuvant therapy can be considered a standard approach for the treatment of patients with cholangiocarcinoma. There are promising results and randomized trials are needed in patients with a metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. In systemic therapy, no single drug or combination has consistently increased median survival beyond the expected 8-12 mo. It is always recommended that patients enrol in clinical trials. Clinical trials have shown that the more standard chemotherapy for a first line regimen of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (or oxaliplatin as a potentially better tolerated agent) is superior to gemcitabine alone. Leucovorin-modulated 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine monotherapy or single agent gemcitabine are reasonable options for patients with a borderline performance status. After progression in patients with an adequate performance status, active regimens that could be considered include gemcitabine plus capecitabine, or erlotinib plus bevacizumab, for second line treatment.
Natalia Ramírez-Merino, Santiago Ponce Aix, Hernán Cortés-Funes, Department of Medical Oncology, Clinica La Luz, 28003 Madrid, Spain.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: World journal of gastrointestinal oncology
Unresectable cholangiocarcinoma is poorly responded to chemotherapy, especially for the case refractory to gemcitabine and cisplatin. Here, we tested whether high expression of thymidine phosphorylase...
To develop a safe and effective agent for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) chemotherapy.
A previous individual patient data meta-analysis by the Meta-Analysis of Chemotherapy in Nasopharynx Carcinoma (MAC-NPC) collaborative group to assess the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy show...
Liver transplant is not a standard therapy for cholangiocarcinoma; complete surgical resection of the tumor is currently the treatment of choice. Palliative options offer only short-term survival. Aft...
Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is one of the fatal malignant neoplasms with poor prognosis. The traditional chemotherapy has been resistant to CC and does not improve the quality of life. The aim of the pres...
To evaluate the feasibility and performance of coregistered 18F-FDG-PET/MRI in the staging of potentially respectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
This research study is a phase III double arm, multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial comparing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and stenting plus photodyna...
This is a multi-center, open label, single arm phase II study evaluating BGJ398 anti-tumor activity in advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma patients with FGFR genetic alterations.
In patients with type III or IV cholangiocarcinoma, photodynamic therapy with biliary stent has been known for palliation of jaundice and improving survival. But most of therapeutic effect...
Patients with advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) who are not eligible for curative surgery, transplantation, or ablative therapies will receive nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine ...
Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
A malignant tumor arising from the intrahepatic bile duct epithelium. It is composed of ducts lined by cuboidal or columnar cells that do not contain bile, with abundant stroma. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1455; Stedman, 25th ed)
A branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the oral and paraoral structures and the oral management of systemic diseases. (Hall, What is Oral Medicine, Anyway? Clinical Update: National Naval Dental Center, March 1991, p7-8)
A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.
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