Advertisement
Advertise here Publish your press releases here Sponsor BioPortfolio
Follow us on Twitter Sign up for daily news and research emails Contributors wanted

Skull modularity in neotropical marsupials and monkeys: size variation and evolutionary constraint and flexibility.

19:12 EDT 23rd April 2014 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Skull modularity in neotropical marsupials and monkeys: size variation and evolutionary constraint and flexibility."

An organism is built through a series of contingent factors, yet it is determined by historical, physical, and developmental constraints. A constraint should not be understood as an absolute obstacle to evolution, as it may also generate new possibilities for evolutionary change. Modularity is, in this context, an important way of organizing biological information and has been recognized as a central concept in evolutionary biology bridging on developmental, genetics, morphological, biochemical, and physiological studies. In this article, we explore how modularity affects the evolution of a complex system in two mammalian lineages by analyzing correlation, variance/covariance, and residual matrices (without size variation). We use the multivariate response to selection equation to simulate the behavior of Eutheria and Metharia skulls in terms of their evolutionary flexibility and constraints. We relate these results to classical approaches based on morphological integration tests based on functional/developmental hypotheses. Eutherians (Neotropical primates) showed smaller magnitudes of integration compared with Metatheria (didelphids) and also skull modules more clearly delimited. Didelphids showed higher magnitudes of integration and their modularity is strongly influenced by within-groups size variation to a degree that evolutionary responses are basically aligned with size variation. Primates still have a good portion of the total variation based on size; however, their enhanced modularization allows a broader spectrum of responses, more similar to the selection gradients applied (enhanced flexibility). Without size variation, both groups become much more similar in terms of modularity patterns and magnitudes and, consequently, in their evolutionary flexibility. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 314B, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Affiliation

Laboratório de Evolução de Mamíferos, Departmento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution
ISSN: 1552-5015
Pages:

Links

PubMed Articles [7247 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

An a posteriori measure of network modularity.

Measuring modularity is important to understand the structure of networks, and has an important number of real-world implications. However, several measures exists to assess the modularity, and give b...

Evolutionary ecology of intraspecific brain size variation: a review.

The brain is a trait of central importance for organismal performance and fitness. To date, evolutionary studies of brain size variation have mainly utilized comparative methods applied at the level o...

Left-right asymmetry of the gnathostome skull: Its evolutionary, developmental and functional aspects.

Much of the gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) evolutionary radiation was dependent upon the ability to sense and interpret the environment and subsequently act upon this information through utilization o...

How humans evolved large brains: Comparative evidence.

The human brain is about three times as large as that of our closest living relatives, the great apes. Overall brain size is a good predictor of cognitive performance in a variety of tests in primates...

Color Vision Variation as Evidenced by Hybrid L/M Opsin Genes in Wild Populations of Trichromatic Alouatta New World Monkeys.

Platyrrhine (New World) monkeys possess highly polymorphic color vision owing to allelic variation of the single-locus L/M opsin gene on the X chromosome. Most species consist of female trichromats an...

Clinical Trials [957 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Effect of Remifentanil Boluses on Hemodynamics in Skull Pin Insertion

Skull pin insertion during craniotomies is a brief, intensely stimulating, painful stimuli occurring during the conduct of a neurosurgical or spine anesthetic. Remifentanil is an ultra sho...

The Effectiveness of Human Antibodies in Influencing an AIDS-Like Disease in Monkeys

The purpose of this study is to see if an investigational vaccine can make antibodies (proteins found in blood) in humans that will influence the course of an AIDS-like disease in monkeys....

Proton Beam Therapy for Chondrosarcoma

The goal of this clinical research study is to learn if proton beam therapy, with or without photon beam radiation therapy, is effective in the treatment of skull base chondrosarcoma. The...

Genetic Analysis of the Chiari I Malformation

The purpose of this study is to better understand the genetic factors related to the Chiari I malformation. In people with this abnormality, the lower part of the skull is smaller than no...

Genetic Basis for Variation in the Renal Elimination of Metformin

The current study is part of a large multi-investigator grant to look at the pharmacogenetics of a number of membrane transporters. We will study individuals with particular genotypes of t...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).

A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Bracyteles).

A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).

Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).

A skull fracture characterized by inward depression of a fragment or section of cranial bone, often compressing the underlying dura mater and brain. Depressed cranial fractures which feature open skin wounds that communicate with skull fragments are referred to as compound depressed skull fractures.

Search BioPortfolio:
Advertisement
Advertisement