Effects of skin wrinkles, age and wetness on mechanical loads in the stratum corneum as related to skin lesions.
Summary of "Effects of skin wrinkles, age and wetness on mechanical loads in the stratum corneum as related to skin lesions."
Finite element models of skin were developed to determine the effects of wetness, age, and wrinkles on mechanical strains and stresses in the stratum corneum (SC) as related to skin lesions. We modeled two geometries, young (0.12-mm-deep wrinkles) and aged (0.18-mm-deep wrinkles), and for each geometry, three loading conditions were applied (compression in a dry environment, compression and shear in dryness, and compression with shear in wetness). Effects of skin wrinkling were studied independently or while coupled with age-related mechanical property changes. For each simulation, we calculated the peak maximal shear strain and stress in the SC, peak shear stress on the skin surface, and volumetric exposure of the SC to potentially injurious shear stresses (<70 kPa). Compression and shear with wetness produced the highest skin surface loads. Volumetric exposure of aged skin to potentially injurious shear stresses was six times greater than in the young skin for these conditions. Deeper wrinkles caused elevated loads in the SC consistently for all outcome measures and independently of the age factor. Thinning and/or stiffening the SC increased both the surface and internal SC stresses. Our findings indicate that theoretically, wetness, skin aging, and/or skin wrinkling are all risk factors for skin lesions such as superficial pressure ulcers.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978, Tel Aviv, Israel.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Medical & biological engineering & computing
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20717736
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11517-010-0673-3
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.
Plastic surgery performed, usually by excision of skin, for the elimination of wrinkles from the skin.
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).
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