Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?
Summary of "Brominated and fluorinated organic pollutants in the breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: is there a relationship to levels in food?"
Brominated flame retardants - polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and others - have been measured in 11 pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers in Ireland. Additionally, the study has measured levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs), mixed halogenated dioxins (PXCC/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) in these samples. The mean sum of 19 PBDEs including BDE-209 was 4.85 ng g(-1) fat, which is comparable with that found in other European countries. BDE-47, BDE-153, BDE-209, BDE-99 and BDE-100 were found at the highest concentrations. The only PBBs detected consistently were BB-77, BB-126 and BB-153, with highest concentrations being found for BB-153 (mean = 0.13 ng g(-1) fat). The mean sum of HBCD enantiomers was 3.52 ng g(-1) fat, with α-HBCD representing over 70% of the total. Of the other brominated flame retardants - tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromobenzene (HBB), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxyethane) (BTBPE) - examined, only TBBP-A was detected above the limit of detection (LOD), in two of the 11 pools analysed. All measured PBDF congeners were observed (at 0.02-0.91 pg g(-1) fat), but 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzodioxin (TeBDD) was the only PBDD detected, with a mean concentration of 0.09 pg g(-1) fat. The occurrence of the mixed chlorinated/brominated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls, 2-B-3,7,8-CDD, 2,3-B-7,8-CDF, 4-B-2,3,7,8-CDF, PXB 105, PXB 118, PXB 126 and PCB 156 in breast milk in the current study may indicate that levels of these contaminants are increasing in the environment. Polychlorinated naphthalenes were detected in all samples, but not perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and other PFAS. The pattern of occurrence of these brominated and fluorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Irish breast milk shows a general relationship to their occurrence in food, as reported in a number of surveillance studies carried out by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland.
a Food Science and Standards Division , Food Safety Authority of Ireland , Dublin 1 , Ireland.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23919530
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2013.822569
AIM:To estimate average infant daily intake of chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through the consumption of breast milk in New Zealand.
Breast-feeding has many beneficial effects on the developing immune system of the newborn. Breast milk contains immunoregulatory factors, such as nano-sized vesicles named exosomes. This study aimed a...
Although mammography and treatment advances have led to declines in breast cancer mortality in the United States, breast cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Breast cancer in young...
How do infants extract milk during breast-feeding? We have resolved a century-long scientific controversy, whether it is sucking of the milk by subatmospheric pressure or mouthing of the nipple-areola...
Because of increased incidence of teenage births and high prevalence of lactation in Latin America, we determined the patterning of free amino acids (FAAs) in breast milk of 65 primiparous Ecuadorian ...
The purpose of this study is to determine whether early start of either breastfeeding or breast milk expression may positively affect milk production later in lactation. 120 breastfeeding...
The primary objectives of this study are to assess whether there is transfer of Certolizumab Pegol (CZP) into breast milk of lactating mothers who are receiving an established dosing regim...
Women of different ethnic groups have different diets that may affect the fatty acid content of their breast milk. Ethnicity may also have an independent effect on breast milk composition....
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the UpSpring Milkscreen Test for Alcohol in Breast Milk to detect alcohol in breast milk from lactating women.
Kangaroo holding is a skin-to-skin method of holding a baby. Many research studies have investigated the maternal and infant benefits associated with kangaroo holding. The purpose of thi...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.
Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.
Glandular tissue in the BREAST of human that is under the influence of hormones such as ESTROGENS; PROGESTINS; and PROLACTIN. In WOMEN, after PARTURITION, the mammary glands secrete milk (MILK, HUMAN) for the nourishment of the young.
A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)