Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
The effect of benzalkonium chlorides (BACs), a widely used class of quaternary ammonium disinfectants, on microbial community structure and antimicrobial resistance was investigated using three aerobic microbial communities: BACs-unexposed (DP, fed a mixture of dextrin/peptone), BACs-exposed (DPB, fed a mixture of dextrin/peptone and BACs) and BACs-enriched (B, fed only BACs). Long-term exposure to BACs reduced community diversity and resulted in the enrichment of BAC-resistant species, predominantly Pseudomonas species. Exposure of the two microbial communities to BACs significantly decreased their susceptibility to BACs as well as three clinically relevant antibiotics (penicillin G, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin). Increased resistance to BACs and penicillin G of the two BACs-exposed communities is predominantly attributed to degradation or transformation of these compounds, whereas resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin is largely due to the activity of efflux pumps. Quantification of several key multidrug resistance genes showed a much higher number of copies of these genes in the DPB and B microbial communities compared to the DP community. Collectively, our findings indicate that exposure of a microbial community to BACs results in increased antibiotic resistance, which has important implications for both human and environmental health.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Environmental science & technology
Quaternary ammonium compounds are a large class of chemicals used for their antimicrobial and antistatic properties. Two common quaternary ammonium compounds, alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (AD...
Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. We hypothesized that long-term exposure to air pollution would be associated with magne...
The aim of this study was to evaluate and report the long-term results of the butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty. Short-term and long-term hearing outcomes were compared according to age and perforatio...
Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been previously linked with higher risk of cardiovascular events. This association may be mediated, at least partly, by increasing the risk of...
In the last years several studies have investigated the effects of some air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the results are not conclusive. Aim of this study was to investigate the as...
To test the long-term effectiveness of a new behavioral strategy, taste-based goal setting, that relied on the role of taste and eating favorite high-fat foods in moderation to minimize fe...
Despite evidence of the physiologic benefits and possible lower mortality associated with low chloride solutions, normal saline remains the most wildly used fluid in the world. Given uncer...
Short-term (1-year) results of renal transplantation are now excellent (over 95%). Long-term (10-year and longer) results are, however, still disappointing. Where most research has focused...
The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety of long-term administration of GSK1325760A in patients with PAH. The secondary objectives of this study are to evaluate long-...
The Secondhand Smoke Study is a medical research study investigating the physiologic, radiographic, and inflammatory responses of lungs to chronic exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. Exp...
Health insurance to provide full or partial coverage for long-term home care services or for long-term nursing care provided in a residential facility such as a nursing home.
A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of a long-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
Drug-related movement disorder characterized by uncontrollable movements in certain muscles. It is associated with a long-term exposure to certain neuroleptic medications (e.g., METOCLOPRAMIDE).
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a family of bacteria with resistance to one or more major antibiotics. There are currently 17 different strains of MRSA. Two particular strains, EMRSA15 and EMRSA16 account for 96% of MRSA blood...
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...