Track topics on Twitter Track topics that are important to you
To constitute an appropriate procedure for clinical diagnosis and treatment for men with azoospermia in China.
Following a procedure which combined the recommendations from WHO, European Association of Urology (EAU), American Urological Association (AUA), American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) with our own experiences, 1 027 patients with azoospermia were divided into different subtypes according to patients' case histories and outcomes of various routine and specialized examinations. Then appropriate treatments were chosen according to the diagnostic subtypes.
There were 516 cases of obstructive azoospermia, 315 of non-obstructive azoospermia and 150 of combined (obstructive and non-obstructive) azoospermia and 46 of azoospermia with special aetiology. Of the 96 patients who adopted surgical intervention, 28 underwent transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts, 10 vasovasostomy and 58 vasoepididymostomy. Of the 45 patients who adopted drug intervention, 16 with inflammatory obstructive azoospermia were treated with antibiotics and 29 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were treated with hormonal therapy. Of all the subjects, 789 patients chose in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 142 chose artificial insemination of donor (AID) or adoption.
(1) A standard procedure should be established for the diagnosis, classification and treatment of azoospermia; (2) Special examinations and treatments should be given to cases of azoospermia with special aetiology; (3) According to the diagnosis and the patients' conditions, the most appropriate treatment options should be recommended to them; (4) The hereditary factors in azoospermia should be seriously considered, and a genetic work-up and counseling should be offered in such cases.
Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; Shanghai Institute of Andrology, Shanghai 200001, China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
Neonatal suppurative sialadenitis is a condition causing infection of the salivary glands, most frequently caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The vast majority of cases reported in the literature have b...
To report three cases of pseudoclitoromegaly and to describe the strategies used for differential diagnosis and treatment.
We report a case of adenomyoepithelioma with predominant myoepithelial quota, a rare tumor of the breast due to proliferation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells in a patient of 71 years. This lesi...
The aim of this study was to report our last nine years' experience in the diagnosis and treatment of retrocaval ureter.
We evaluated the aetiological factors, diagnoses and treatment outcomes of adult cases of invagination of the intestine, or intussusception. We elucidated the role of ultrasonography (USG), computed t...
Preliminary reports showed that hormonal treatment may improve the chance of retrieving viable testicular sperm from men with NOA. It was generally believed that gonadotrophin treatment wo...
Aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of highly purified human follicle-stimulating hormone treatment on the chance of retrieving testicular sperm (sperm retrieval rate) from infertil...
Needle aspiration of the epididymis causes rupture and irreversible damage to the duct. Recurring punctures and needle aspirations of fluid and tissue during Testicular Fine Needle Aspirat...
Hypothesis: Prescribed clomiphene citrate to azoospermic patients with hypoandrogenism could improve the sperm retrieval in either fresh sperm or after surgical sperm extraction.
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is considered to be a gold standard of therapy of colorectal lateral spreading tumors (LST) without significant risk for lymphatic spread. According to t...
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.
Works consisting of collections of law reports or the published reports of decided cases and documents or filings related to those cases.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties. It is used mainly in the treatment of anemias. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002), this compound may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) Erectile Dysfunction Urology Urology is the branch of medicine concerned with the urinary tract and diseases that affect it. Examples include urethritis, urethrostenosis and incontinence. Urology is a su...
Prostate cancer (cancer de prostata) Prostate cancer (cancer de prostata) is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, there are cases of aggressive prostat...