Standardized diagnosis and treatment of azoospermia: A report of 1 027 cases.
Summary of "Standardized diagnosis and treatment of azoospermia: A report of 1 027 cases."
To constitute an appropriate procedure for clinical diagnosis and treatment for men with azoospermia in China.
Following a procedure which combined the recommendations from WHO, European Association of Urology (EAU), American Urological Association (AUA), American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) with our own experiences, 1 027 patients with azoospermia were divided into different subtypes according to patients' case histories and outcomes of various routine and specialized examinations. Then appropriate treatments were chosen according to the diagnostic subtypes.
There were 516 cases of obstructive azoospermia, 315 of non-obstructive azoospermia and 150 of combined (obstructive and non-obstructive) azoospermia and 46 of azoospermia with special aetiology. Of the 96 patients who adopted surgical intervention, 28 underwent transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts, 10 vasovasostomy and 58 vasoepididymostomy. Of the 45 patients who adopted drug intervention, 16 with inflammatory obstructive azoospermia were treated with antibiotics and 29 with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were treated with hormonal therapy. Of all the subjects, 789 patients chose in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and 142 chose artificial insemination of donor (AID) or adoption.
(1) A standard procedure should be established for the diagnosis, classification and treatment of azoospermia; (2) Special examinations and treatments should be given to cases of azoospermia with special aetiology; (3) According to the diagnosis and the patients' conditions, the most appropriate treatment options should be recommended to them; (4) The hereditary factors in azoospermia should be seriously considered, and a genetic work-up and counseling should be offered in such cases.
Department of Urology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine; Shanghai Institute of Andrology, Shanghai 200001, China.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
Azoospermia is the absence of a measurable level of spermatozoa in the semen. It affects approximately 1% of all men, and the genetic basis of the majority of idiopathic cases is unknown. We investiga...
Azoospermia is a serious potential side effect following treatment for testicular cancer (TC). Our purpose was to examine possible predictors of long-term azoospermia in TC survivors. Ejaculates and b...
Seminal vesicle malformations are a rare cause of obstructive azoospermia, often associated with other internal genitalia and upper urinary tract birth defects. We report 5 new cases of seminal vesicl...
Cardiac amyloidosis is a manifestation of multisystem disorder. The condition is rare, difficult to diagnose and invariably fatal. We report 2 cases of amyloidosis associated with plasma cell dyscrasi...
More than 90% of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma occur on the background of chronic liver disease. Its diagnosis should therefore be based on six-month ultrasound screening, which should be started ...
This proposal, developed in the framework of the GIMEMA, will permit: - to evaluate the activity and toxicity of imatinib in the treatment of Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia; ...
The Nosocomial Pneumonia remains to be a major complication for patients who were incubated with ventilation. Most cases are attributed to increased bacteria flora in oropharyngeal secreti...
The primary purpose is to improve and quicken the microbial diagnosis in severe infections, since only one third of the cases are documented by blood cultures and adequate anti-infective t...
The RATIO registry is a French registry designed by a multidisciplinary group to collect data on opportunistic and severe bacterial infections and lymphoma in patients treated with TNF-a a...
Uveitis is an inflammatory disease of one or both eyes. Uveitis will in severe cases lead to permanent loss of vision/blindness on the affected eye. Uveitis can be caused by autoimmune dis...
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.
Works consisting of collections of law reports or the published reports of decided cases and documents or filings related to those cases.
A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties. It is used mainly in the treatment of anemias. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002), this compound may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)