Water Immersion-Induced Skin Wrinkling Is Related to Heart Rate Variability.

21:51 EDT 26th March 2015 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Water Immersion-Induced Skin Wrinkling Is Related to Heart Rate Variability."

Water immersion-induced skin wrinkling (WISW) is dependent on intact peripheral sympathetic function. WISW was hypothesized to reflect autonomic function in subjects without peripheral neuropathy. We prospectively studied 70 healthy subjects (aged 31 +/- 8 years, 63% females) without cardiovascular risk factors or neurological disease. All subjects underwent short-term heart rate variability (HRV) studies. Time and frequency domain variables were derived including the HRV index. WISW was graded using a previously validated scale of 1-4 of which 18.6% of subjects exhibited grade 1 (minimal) WISW and 35.7% had grade 2 WISW. On multivariate analysis using the HRV index, WISW was independently related to height and the HRV index. We conclude that WISW is related to central autonomic function.


Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., USA.

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Cardiology
ISSN: 1421-9751
Pages: 247-250


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A condition of the feet produced by prolonged exposure of the feet to water. Exposure for 48 hours or more to warm water causes tropical immersion foot or warm-water immersion foot common in Vietnam where troops were exposed to prolonged or repeated wading in paddy fields or streams. Trench foot results from prolonged exposure to cold, without actual freezing. It was common in trench warfare during World War I, when soldiers stood, sometimes for hours, in trenches with a few inches of cold water in them. (Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p27)

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