Water Immersion-Induced Skin Wrinkling Is Related to Heart Rate Variability.
Water immersion-induced skin wrinkling (WISW) is dependent on intact peripheral sympathetic function. WISW was hypothesized to reflect autonomic function in subjects without peripheral neuropathy. We prospectively studied 70 healthy subjects (aged 31 +/- 8 years, 63% females) without cardiovascular risk factors or neurological disease. All subjects underwent short-term heart rate variability (HRV) studies. Time and frequency domain variables were derived including the HRV index. WISW was graded using a previously validated scale of 1-4 of which 18.6% of subjects exhibited grade 1 (minimal) WISW and 35.7% had grade 2 WISW. On multivariate analysis using the HRV index, WISW was independently related to height and the HRV index. We conclude that WISW is related to central autonomic function.
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., USA.
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A condition of the feet produced by prolonged exposure of the feet to water. Exposure for 48 hours or more to warm water causes tropical immersion foot or warm-water immersion foot common in Vietnam where troops were exposed to prolonged or repeated wading in paddy fields or streams. Trench foot results from prolonged exposure to cold, without actual freezing. It was common in trench warfare during World War I, when soldiers stood, sometimes for hours, in trenches with a few inches of cold water in them. (Andrews' Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p27)
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Non-fatal immersion or submersion in water. The subject is resuscitable.
Death that occurs as a result of anoxia or heart arrest, associated with immersion in liquid.