Automatic detection and quantification of sleep apnea using heart rate variability.
Summary of "Automatic detection and quantification of sleep apnea using heart rate variability."
Detection of sleep apnea using electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters is noninvasive and inexpensive. Our approach is based on the hypothesis that the patient's sleep-wake cycle during episodes of sleep apnea modulates heart rate (HR) oscillations. These HR oscillations appear as low-frequency fluctuations of instantaneous HR (IHR) and can be detected using HR variability analysis in the frequency domain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of our ECG-based algorithm for sleep apnea detection and quantification. The algorithm first detects normal QRS complexes and R-R intervals used to derive IHR and to estimate its spectral power in several frequency ranges. A quadratic classifier, trained on the learning set, uses 2 parameters to classify the 1-minute epoch in the middle of each 6-minute window as either apneic or normal. The windows are advanced by 1-minute steps, and the classification process is repeated. As a measure of quantification, the algorithm correctly classified 84.7% of all the 1-minute epochs in the evaluation database; and as a measure of the accuracy of apnea classification, the algorithm correctly classified all 30 test recordings in the evaluation database either as apneic or normal. Our sleep apnea detection algorithm based on analysis of a single-lead ECG provides accurate apnea detection and quantification. Because of its noninvasive and low-cost nature, this algorithm has the potential for numerous applications in sleep medicine.
Advanced Algorithm Research Center, Philips Healthcare, Andover, MA, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of electrocardiology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20719334
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.07.003
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Sleep Apnea, Central
A condition associated with multiple episodes of sleep apnea which are distinguished from obstructive sleep apnea (SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE) by the complete cessation of efforts to breathe. This disorder is associated with dysfunction of central nervous system centers that regulate respiration. This condition may be idiopathic (primary) or associated with lower brain stem lesions; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (LUNG DISEASES, OBSTRUCTIVE); HEART FAILURE, CONGESTIVE; medication effect; and other conditions. Sleep maintenance is impaired, resulting in daytime hypersomnolence. Primary central sleep apnea is frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea. When both forms are present the condition is referred to as mixed sleep apnea (see SLEEP APNEA SYNDROMES). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395; Neurol Clin 1996;14(3):611-28)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
Tachycardia, Ectopic Atrial
Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.
Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic
Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)
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