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The effects of thermal history on the enthalpy relaxation in polystyrene are studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The temperature dependence of the specific heat in the liquid and the glassy states, that of relaxation time, and the exponent of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts function are determined by measurements of the thermal response against sinusoidal temperature variation. A phenomenological model equation previously proposed to interpret the memory effect in the frozen state is applied to the enthalpy relaxation and the evolution of entropy under a given thermal history is calculated. The annealing below the glass transition temperature produces two effects on enthalpy relaxation: the decay of excess entropy with annealing time in the early stage of annealing and the increase in relaxation time due to physical aging in the later stage. The crossover of these effects is reflected in the variation of temperature of the maximum specific heat observed in the heating process after annealing and cooling.
Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida-nihonmatsu-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics
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An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
A synthetic PGE2 analog that has an inhibitory effect on gastric acid secretion, a mucoprotective effect, and a postprandial lowering effect on gastrin. It has been shown to be efficient and safe in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers.
A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.