The orexin system: roles in sleep/wake regulation.
Summary of "The orexin system: roles in sleep/wake regulation."
The neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, produced in hypothalamic neurons, are critical regulators of sleep/wake states. Deficiency of orexin signaling results in narcoleptic phenotype in humans, dogs, and rodents. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that the orexin system regulates sleep and wakefulness through interactions with neuronal systems that are closely related with emotion, reward, and energy homeostasis. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of the physiology of the orexin system especially focusing on its roles in the regulation of sleep/wakefulness states.
Department of Molecular Neuroscience and Integrative Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20633143
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05513.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)
Sleep-wake Transition Disorders
Parasomnias characterized by behavioral abnormalities that occur during the transition between wakefulness and sleep (or between sleep and wakefulness).
Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm
Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.
A sleep disorder of central nervous system origin characterized by prolonged nocturnal sleep and periods of daytime drowsiness. Affected individuals experience difficulty with awakening in the morning and may have associated sleep drunkenness, automatic behaviors, and memory disturbances. This condition differs from narcolepsy in that daytime sleep periods are longer, there is no association with CATAPLEXY, and the multiple sleep latency onset test does not record sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep. (From Chokroverty, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, pp319-20; Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1998 Apr:52(2):125-129)
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
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