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Compelling evidence of a cell surface receptor sensitive to extracellular calcium was observed as early as the 1980s and was finally realized in 1993 when the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) was cloned from bovine parathyroid tissue. Initial studies relating to the CaR focused on its key role in extracellular calcium homeostasis, but as the amount of information about the receptor grew it became evident that it was involved in many biological processes unrelated to calcium homeostasis. The CaR responds to a diverse array of stimuli extending well beyond that merely of calcium, and these stimuli can lead to the initiation of a wide variety of intracellular signaling pathways that in turn are able to regulate a diverse range of biological processes. It has been through the examination of the molecular characteristics of the CaR that we now have an understanding of how this single receptor is able to convert extracellular messages into specific cellular responses. Recent CaR-related reviews have focused on specific aspects of the receptor, generally in the context of the CaR's role in physiology and pathophysiology. This review will provide a comprehensive exploration of the different aspects of the receptor, including its structure, stimuli, signalling, interacting protein partners, and tissue expression patterns, and will relate their impact on the functionality of the CaR from a molecular perspective.
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands 6009, Western Australia, Australia; and the University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Nedlands 6009, Western Australia, Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Endocrine reviews
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A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind to CALCIUM. They undergo allosteric changes when bound to CALCIUM that affects their interaction with other signal-transducing molecules. They differ from CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTORS which sense extracellular calcium levels.
Small organic molecules that act as allosteric activators of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the PARATHYROID GLANDS and other tissues. They lower the threshold for CaSR activation by extracellular calcium ions and diminish PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) release from parathyroid cells.
A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration.
A condition caused by a deficiency of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH). It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA and hyperphosphatemia. Hypocalcemia leads to TETANY. The acquired form is due to removal or injuries to the PARATHYROID GLANDS. The congenital form is due to mutations of genes, such as TBX1; (see DIGEORGE SYNDROME); CASR encoding CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTOR; or PTH encoding parathyroid hormone.
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