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Compelling evidence of a cell surface receptor sensitive to extracellular calcium was observed as early as the 1980s and was finally realized in 1993 when the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) was cloned from bovine parathyroid tissue. Initial studies relating to the CaR focused on its key role in extracellular calcium homeostasis, but as the amount of information about the receptor grew it became evident that it was involved in many biological processes unrelated to calcium homeostasis. The CaR responds to a diverse array of stimuli extending well beyond that merely of calcium, and these stimuli can lead to the initiation of a wide variety of intracellular signaling pathways that in turn are able to regulate a diverse range of biological processes. It has been through the examination of the molecular characteristics of the CaR that we now have an understanding of how this single receptor is able to convert extracellular messages into specific cellular responses. Recent CaR-related reviews have focused on specific aspects of the receptor, generally in the context of the CaR's role in physiology and pathophysiology. This review will provide a comprehensive exploration of the different aspects of the receptor, including its structure, stimuli, signalling, interacting protein partners, and tissue expression patterns, and will relate their impact on the functionality of the CaR from a molecular perspective.
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands 6009, Western Australia, Australia; and the University of Western Australia Centre for Medical Research, Nedlands 6009, Western Australia, Australia.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Endocrine reviews
To evaluate the association between calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) Arg990Gly (rs1042636, A > G), Ala986Ser (rs1801725, G > T) polymorphisms, and urolithiasis risk.
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) belongs to the disorders of a disturbed calcium homeostasis. Genetically, the disorder is inherited in an autosomal-dominant trait and represents an inactiva...
The coexistence of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is extremely rare. Genetic evidence has demonstrated a causal relationship between FHH and the pres...
Autoimmunity to Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) has been implicated in aetiopathogenesis of Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH). While humoral immune responses have been shown, cell mediated auto-immun...
The progression of vascular calcification, an active process promoted by osteo/chondrogenic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is attenuated by activation of the calcium-sensing re...
This study was to assess the distinct expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13,tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3, and calcium-sensing receptor, in human trabecular meshwork between...
Compare the functionality of new parathyroid transport solution (NPTS) with University of Wisconsin Solution (UW) on parathyroid glands. Also assess its effects on cell viability, parathor...
Pulmonary vein (PV) isolation is very important in atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation. PV reconnection is one of the main reasons in AF recurrence. Contact force-sensing catheter i...
The aim of this study is to measure of the parathyroid cell viability and the the amount of calcium sensing receptor of the parathyroid cells which were placed into a new transportation so...
Primary objective: The primary objective is to define the proteomic and molecular characteristics of primary and recurrent/ metastatic breast tumours with special focus on the expression ...
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular CALCIUM levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the PARATHYROID GLANDS play an important role in the maintenance of calcium HOMEOSTASIS by regulating the release of PARATHYROID HORMONE. They differ from INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM-SENSING PROTEINS which sense intracellular calcium levels.
Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins that bind to CALCIUM. They undergo allosteric changes when bound to CALCIUM that affects their interaction with other signal-transducing molecules. They differ from CALCIUM-SENSING RECEPTORS which sense extracellular calcium levels.
Small organic molecules that act as allosteric activators of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the PARATHYROID GLANDS and other tissues. They lower the threshold for CaSR activation by extracellular calcium ions and diminish PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) release from parathyroid cells.
A family of intracellular calcium-sensing proteins found predominately in NEURONS and PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They contain EF HAND MOTIFS and undergo conformational changes upon calcium-binding. Neuronal calcium-sensor proteins interact with other regulatory proteins to mediate physiological responses to a change in intracellular calcium concentration.
A naphthalene derivative and CALCIMIMETIC AGENT that increases the sensitivity of PARATHYROID GLAND calcium-sensing receptors to serum calcium. This action reduces parathyroid hormone secretion and decreases serum calcium in the treatment of PARATHYROID DISEASES.
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