Effect of vitamin D and beta-sitosterol on immune function of macrophages.
Summary of "Effect of vitamin D and beta-sitosterol on immune function of macrophages."
Among the many functions of vitamin D (VD) is its role in the immunomodulation of macrophage. As VD deficiency is a worldwide spread nutritional problem, there is a tendency for the public to overdose themselves with vitamin D supplementation which can result in hypercalcemia and several associated disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility that combining low doses of vitamin D with B-sitosterol (SIT), a common phytosterol in the diet without toxicity, enhances the efficacy of the vitamin. Murine macrophages were stimulated with LPS and supplemented with VD3 (80nM) and SIT (8muM) for 24hr and examined for cell proliferation, release of nitric oxide (NO) and cytokines and the activation of NFkappaB. SIT (8muM) was found to reduce cell proliferation by 62% while VD was found to be not effective. In combination, SIT and VD reduced cell proliferation by 75%.The amount of NO released, as influenced by 8muM SIT or 80nM VD3 treatments, was not significantly different from control. Combining SIT and VD3, resulted in a 220% greater increase in NO release compared to control. The SIT + VD3 treatment brought about significant increase in all the cytokine release, regardless of whether they were pro- or anti-inflammatory. The effects were either additive or synergistic. We conclude that SIT enhances the action of VD3 on the immune function of macrophages which could be beneficial to vitamin D deficient individuals and to those with autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: International immunopharmacology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20728596
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2010.08.003
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.
A plant genus of the family URTICACEAE. Members contain cryptopleurine, beta-sitosterol, daucosterol and 19 alpha-hydroxyursolic acid.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
A vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.
A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain aculeatin D, beta-sitosterol, and STIGMASTEROL. Some members have been reclassified to ELETTARIA and other ZINGIBERACEAE.
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