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The mechanisms by which Nuclear Hormone Receptors (NHRs) regulate transcription are highly dynamic and require interplay between a myriad of regulatory protein complexes including the 26S proteasome. Protein degradation is the most well-established role of the proteasome; however, an increasing body of evidence suggests that the 26S proteasome may regulate transcription in proteolytic and non-proteolytic mechanisms. Here we review how these mechanisms may apply to NHR-mediated transcriptional regulation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta
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A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS and PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING during the process of nuclear receptor-induced transcription. The coactivator has been found at elevated levels in certain HORMONE-DEPENDENT NEOPLASMS such as those found in BREAST CANCER.
A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.
An orphan nuclear receptor that is closely related to members of the thyroid-steroid receptor family. It was originally identified in NERVE CELLS, however it may play regulatory roles in a variety of other tissues.
Hepatocyte nuclear factors are a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that are preferentially expressed in HEPATOCYTES. They play important roles in liver-specific transcription and are critical for CELL DIFFERENTIATION and METABOLISM.
A nuclear co-repressor protein that shows specificity for RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. The dissociation of this co-repressor from nuclear receptors is generally ligand-dependent, but can also occur by way of its phosphorylation by members of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. The protein contains two nuclear receptor interaction domains and four repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 1.
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