The Immune Response in Coccidioidomycosis.
Summary of "The Immune Response in Coccidioidomycosis."
With the increasing use of biologics, clinical rheumatologists are becoming very well acquainted with opportunistic infections, including tuberculosis, histoplasmosis and Coccidiomycosis. In the great valleys of California as well as several other hot spots in the Southern areas of the United States and select pockets in South America, valley fever, also known as Coccidiomycosis, is an endemic infection. The vast majority of patients are asymptomatic following exposure, but are at risk for clinical disease in the case of immunosuppression. Additionally, although 60% of patients with infections are completely asymptomatic, nearly all patients have immunological evidence of exposure. Within some communities in the central valley of California, sero conversion approaches 100%, fortunately the vast majority remain asymptomatic. In this review we will place the context of the immune response to Coccidiomycosis in perspective and discuss not only the lymphoid response, but also recent data on antigenic analysis and bioinformatics of Coccidioides. This information is significant not only for a better understanding of Coccidiomycosis, but will also have utility in the management of patients within areas of the world who are treated with the biologics for autoimmune disease.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Autoimmunity reviews
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20728582
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2010.08.010
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Immune System Phenomena
The characteristic properties and processes involved in IMMUNITY and an organism's immune response.
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
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