Emollient Molecule Effects on the Drying Stresses in Human Stratum Corneum.
Summary of "Emollient Molecule Effects on the Drying Stresses in Human Stratum Corneum."
SUMMARY Background: Emollient molecules are widely used in skin care formulations to improve skin sensory properties and to alleviate dry skin but little is understood regarding their effects on skin biomechanical properties. Objectives: To investigate the effects of emollient molecules on drying stresses in human stratum corneum (SC) and how these stresses are related to SC components and moisture content. Methods: The substrate curvature method was used to measure the drying stresses in isolated SC following exposure to selected emollient molecules. While SC stresses measured using this method have the same biaxial in vivo stress-state and moisture exchange with the environment, a limitation of the method is that moisture cannot be replenished by the underlying skin layers. This provides an opportunity to study the direct effects of emollient treatments on the moisture content and the components of the SC. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was employed to determine the effects of emollient molecules on SC lipid extraction and conformation. Results: Emollient molecules result in a complex SC drying stress profile where stresses increased rapidly to peak values and then gradually decrease to significantly lower values compared to control. The partially occlusive treatments also penetrate into the SC where they caused extraction and changes in lipid conformation. These effects together with their effects on SC moisture content are used to rationalize the drying stress profiles. Conclusions: Emollient molecules have dramatic effects on SC drying stresses that is related to their effects on intercellular lipids and SC moisture content.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The British journal of dermatology
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20633012
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09937.x
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).
Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.
A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.
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