Evolving use of biomarkers for kidney injury in acute care settings.
Summary of "Evolving use of biomarkers for kidney injury in acute care settings."
Acute kidney injury is increasingly recognized in acute care settings in more recent years. Proper diagnosis and risk stratification for acute kidney injury is necessary for carrying out appropriate and cost-effective treatments in patients with acute kidney injury. Kidney markers serve as diagnostic and prognostic tools to give physicians a more complete perspective of renal insult. The aim of this review is to highlight some of the evidence from recent studies, involving kidney markers and provide current opinion on the accuracy of these markers. RECENT
Recent studies demonstrate that novel kidney markers such as cystatin C, interleukin-18, kidney injury molecule 1, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin serve as more accurate markers for acute kidney injury as compared with the more traditional marker, creatinine. Additionally, there seems to be a correlation between the concentrations of each marker and the level of deterioration of kidneys, patient recovery time, length of hospital stay, and hospital costs.
Each individual kidney marker possesses its own strengths and weaknesses in determining the onset and severity of acute kidney injury. However, in combination, a panel of kidney markers may serve as powerful tools in diagnosing kidney injury with high accuracy.
Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, San Diego Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California San Diego, California, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Current opinion in critical care
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20736831
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCC.0b013e32833e10bc
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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
Abrupt reduction in kidney function defined as an absolute increase in serum CREATININE of more than or equal to 0.3. mg/dl, a percentage increase in serum creatinine of more than or equal to 50%, or a reduction in urine output. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
Acute kidney failure resulting from destruction of EPITHELIAL CELLS of the KIDNEY TUBULES. It is commonly attributed to exposure to toxic agents or renal ISCHEMIA following severe TRAUMA.
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
The controlling of access to health services, usually by primary care providers; often used in managed care settings to reduce utilization of expensive services and reduce referrals. (From BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1999)
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.