The role of opioid receptor antagonists in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation: a review.
Summary of "The role of opioid receptor antagonists in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation: a review."
Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is associated with negative impact of opioid analgesics on opioid receptors located in the gut wall. Until recently, OIC was treated symptomatically only, with different laxatives which did not target the pathophysiology of OIC. Recently, several opioid receptor antagonists have been introduced in the treatment of OIC. Methylnaltrexone (MNTX) is a peripheral mu-opioid receptor antagonist for subcutaneous administration, which does not evoke symptoms of opioid abstinence. MNTX is indicated for patients with OIC who are not amenable to therapy with oral laxatives. In clinical trials, the effectiveness of MNTX assessed as its ability to induce spontaneous bowel movement, is 50%-60% of treated patients; MNTX demonstrates significant superiority over placebo. Another product is combination of oral formulation of prolonged release oxycodone and prolonged release naloxone (PR oxycodone/PR naloxone), indicated for patients who require opioid administration for chronic pain and have already developed OIC, and for those who need opioid therapy and take the drug to prevent OIC. Naloxone administered orally displays local, antagonist effects on opioid receptors in the gut wall, negligible systemic bioavailability, and significantly reduces the oxycodone constipating effect. PR oxycodone/PR naloxone has similar analgesic efficacy, but causes less constipation and less laxative consumption in comparison with patients treated with oxycodone alone. Both products are expensive, therefore their administration should be carefully considered. On the other hand, uncontrolled OIC and the necessity to perform rectal invasive procedures (enema, manual evacuation) lead not only to increased health care costs, but most importantly, cause severe patient suffering.
Chair and Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Osiedle Rusa 25 A, 61-245, Poznan, Poland, firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Advances in therapy
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799006
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-010-0063-0
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An opioid antagonist with properties similar to those of NALOXONE; in addition it also possesses some agonist properties. It should be used cautiously; levallorphan reverses severe opioid-induced respiratory depression but may exacerbate respiratory depression such as that induced by alcohol or other non-opioid central depressants. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p683)
A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. It also has a depressant action on the cough center and may be given to control intractable cough associated with terminal lung cancer. Methadone is also used as part of the treatment of dependence on opioid drugs, although prolonged use of methadone itself may result in dependence. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)
Enkephalin, D-penicillamine (2,5)-
A disulfide opioid pentapeptide that selectively binds to the DELTA OPIOID RECEPTOR. It possesses antinociceptive activity.
A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.
Receptors, Opioid, Kappa
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.
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