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Carcinogenesis is a multi-step process which could be prevented by phytochemicals. Phytochemicals from dietary plants and other plant sources such as herbs are becoming increasingly important sources of anticancer drugs or compounds for cancer chemoprevention or adjuvant chemotherapy. Phytochemicals can prevent cancer initiation, promotion, and progression by exerting anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects which are mediated by integrated Nrf2, NF-kappaB, and AP-1 signaling pathways. In addition, phytochemicals from herbal medicinal plants and/or some dietary plants developed in recent years have been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells and inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. In advanced tumors, a series of changes involving critical signaling molecules that would drive tumor cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and becoming invasive. In this review, we will discuss the potential molecular targets and signaling pathways that mediate tumor onset and metastasis. In addition, we will shed light on some of the phytochemicals that are capable of targeting these signaling pathways which would make them potentially applicable to cancer chemoprevention, treatment and control of cancer progression.
Center for Cancer Prevention Research, Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest-Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 160 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cancer metastasis reviews
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A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)
Metastatic breast cancer characterized by EDEMA and ERYTHEMA of the affected breast due to LYMPHATIC METASTASIS and eventual obstruction of LYMPHATIC VESSELS by the cancer cells.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is frequently up-regulated in human GASTRIC CANCER and is a tumor marker (TUMOR MARKERS, BIOLOGICAL) of gastric and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A tumor, basically a carcinoma with a single sarcoma such as leiomyosarcoma or angiosarcoma or multiple sarcomas of uterine origin. The role of estrogen has been postulated as a possible etiological factor in this tumor. (Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1703)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Head and neck cancers
Cancer can occur in any of the tissues or organs in the head and neck. There are over 30 different places that cancer can develop in the head and neck area. Mouth cancers (oral cancers) - Mouth cancer can develop on the lip, the tongue, the floor...
Bladder Cancer Brain Cancer Breast Cancer Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Head & Neck Cancers Hodgkin Lymphoma Leukemia Lung Cancer Melanoma Myeloma Ovarian Cancer Pancreatic Cancer ...
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...