Modulation of Presynaptic GABA Release by Oxidative Stress in Mechanically-isolated Rat Cerebral Cortical Neurons.
Summary of "Modulation of Presynaptic GABA Release by Oxidative Stress in Mechanically-isolated Rat Cerebral Cortical Neurons."
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which include hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the superoxide anion (O(2) (-).), and the hydroxyl radical (OH.), are generated as by-products of oxidative metabolism in cells. The cerebral cortex has been found to be particularly vulnerable to production of ROS associated with conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion, Parkinson's disease, and aging. To investigate the effect of ROS on inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission, we examined the electrophysiological mechanisms of the modulatory effect of H(2)O(2) on GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSCs) in mechanically isolated rat cerebral cortical neurons retaining intact synaptic boutons. The membrane potential was voltage-clamped at -60 mV and mIPSCs were recorded and analyzed. Superfusion of 1-mM H(2)O(2) gradually potentiated mIPSCs. This potentiating effect of H(2)O(2) was blocked by the pretreatment with either 10,000-unit/mL catalase or 300-microM N-acetyl-cysteine. The potentiating effect of H(2)O(2) was occluded by an adenylate cyclase activator, forskolin, and was blocked by a protein kinase A inhibitor, N-(2-[p-bromocinnamylamino] ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride. This study indicates that oxidative stress may potentiate presynaptic GABA release through the mechanism of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent pathways, which may result in the inhibition of the cerebral cortex neuronal activity.
Department of Physiology, Biomedical Science Institute and Medical Research Center for Reactive Oxygen Species, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul 130-701, Korea.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20631883
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2010.14.3.127
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Gaba Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates that extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
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