Phenolic compounds responsible for the superoxide dismutase-like activity in high-Brix apple vinegar.
Summary of "Phenolic compounds responsible for the superoxide dismutase-like activity in high-Brix apple vinegar."
High-Brix apple vinegar (HBAV) with palatable drinking qualities has been developed using a greater amount of apple ingredients. In HBAV and in regular apple vinegar (RAV), constituents of 4 kinds of organic acids, 20 kinds of amino acids, 3 kinds of sugars, 4 kinds of minerals, and phenols were determined. These constituents, except for acetic acid, in HBAV are of higher abundance than in RAV. HBAV had a 7.1 times greater superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity compared with RAV. Those constituents, except for phenols, had very low SOD-like activity, and total phenol levels in HBAV were comparable to 181 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 mL, which was 6.0 times more abundant than in RAV. Nine kinds of phenols including two kinds of hydroxycinnamates, two kinds of hydroxybenzoates, and five kinds of hydroxycinnamoyl quinates, originating from raw material were determined, but there were no ascorbic acid and flavonoids in HBAV. Chlorogenic acid, 4-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and caffeic acid were the three major phenols, and their content levels were 19.6, 13.5, and 0.76 mg in 100 mL of HBAV, respectively. Sum of contents of chlorogenic acid and the isomers was 24.0 mg/100 mL, and the percentage was 56.9% in the total identified phenols in HBAV. In RAV, only chlorogenic acid was determined as phenols, and the content was 3.1 mg/100 mL. SOD-like activities of the constituents of HBAV were obtained through high-accuracy assays using vinegar reconstitutions, and each contribution to the total SOD-like activity was found. As a result, 77.2% for all SOD-like activity of HBAV was reconstituted using the determined nine phenols and other constituents. Chlorogenic acids were the most effective, and the contribution to the total activity was 41.7%. The most abundant phenols, chlorogenic acids, were the most important contributors to the SOD-like activity. These SOD-active phenols originated from raw material and remained through the acetic acid fermentation processes. In the fermentation process of HBAV, the active constituents were well maintained, providing an advantage in the production of a phenol-rich product.
Department of Bioscience Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano 399-4598 Japan. email@example.com
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 22.214.171.124.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome
An inherited disorder of copper metabolism transmitted as an X-linked trait and characterized by the infantile onset of HYPOTHERMIA, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, SEIZURES, bony deformities, pili torti (twisted hair), and severely impaired intellectual development. Defective copper transport across plasma and endoplasmic reticulum membranes results in copper being unavailable for the synthesis of several copper containing enzymes, including PROTEIN-LYSINE 6-OXIDASE; CERULOPLASMIN; and SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. Pathologic changes include defects in arterial elastin, neuronal loss, and gliosis. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p125)
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
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