Rest tremor in advanced essential tremor: a post-mortem study of nine cases.
Summary of "Rest tremor in advanced essential tremor: a post-mortem study of nine cases."
Background Rest tremor may occur in as many as 30% of essential tremor (ET) patients. It is not clear whether this tremor is a sentinel marker for brainstem Lewy body pathology. Here we report the clinical and post-mortem findings of nine ET cases with upper-extremity rest tremor in the absence of other parkinsonian features. Methods All brains had a complete neuropathological assessment. Tissue sections from the brainstem and basal ganglia were immunostained with alpha-synuclein antibody. Results All cases had longstanding ET (median duration=42 years) with moderate to severe arm tremor. Rest tremor involved both arms in seven (77.8%) cases and one arm in two cases. The rest tremor score was correlated with the total action tremor score (r=0.69, p=0.04). The number of torpedoes was elevated, and Purkinje cells, reduced. Post-mortem changes in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), caudate, putamen and globus pallidum were minimal, and neither Lewy bodies nor Lewy neurites were evident. Conclusions In nine ET brains with upper-extremity rest tremor, neither Lewy body-containing neurons nor Lewy neurites were found on alpha-synuclein immunostained sections, and other pathological changes in the basal ganglia were minimal. These data support the notion that isolated rest tremor in longstanding ET is not the expression of underlying Lewy body pathology in the SNc.
GH Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, USA.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20802027
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2010.215681
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
A relatively common disorder characterized by a fairly specific pattern of tremors which are most prominent in the upper extremities and neck, inducing titubations of the head. The tremor is usually mild, but when severe may be disabling. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance may occur in some families (i.e., familial tremor). (Mov Disord 1988;13(1):5-10)
Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.
Incoordination of voluntary movements that occur as a manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES. Characteristic features include a tendency for limb movements to overshoot or undershoot a target (dysmetria), a tremor that occurs during attempted movements (intention TREMOR), impaired force and rhythm of diadochokinesis (rapidly alternating movements), and GAIT ATAXIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p90)
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
A dopamine D2 agonist. It is used in the treatment of parkinson disease, particularly for alleviation of tremor. It has also been used for circulatory disorders and in other applications as a D2 agonist.
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