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Epidemiologic studies of pesticides have been subject to important biases arising from exposure misclassification. Although turf applicators are exposed to a variety of pesticides, these exposures have not been well characterized. This paper describes a repeated measures study of 135 TruGreen applicators over three spraying seasons via the collection of 1028 urine samples. These applicators were employed in six cities across the United States. Twenty-four-hour estimates (μg) were calculated for the parent compounds 2,4-D, MCPA, mecoprop, dicamba, and imidacloprid and for the insecticide metabolites MPA and 6-CNA. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the urinary levels of these pesticides, whereas mixed models were applied to describe the variance apportionment with respect to city, season, individual, and day of sampling. The contributions to the overall variance explained by each of these factors varied considerably by the type of pesticide. The implications for characterizing exposures in these workers within the context of a cohort study are discussed.
Population Studies and Surveillance, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 2L7. Shelley.Harris@cancercare.on.ca
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
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Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
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The non-profit, non-governmental organization which collects, processes, and distributes data on hospital use. Two programs of the Commission are the Professional Activity Study and the Medical Audit Program.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research on the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the eye and visual system. It was originally part of the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness. The National Eye Institute was established in 1968.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.
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