MR Imaging of Entrapment Neuropathies of the Lower Extremity: Part 2. The Knee, Leg, Ankle, and Foot1.
Summary of "MR Imaging of Entrapment Neuropathies of the Lower Extremity: Part 2. The Knee, Leg, Ankle, and Foot1."
Entrapment neuropathies of the knee, leg, ankle, and foot are often underdiagnosed, as the results of clinical examination and electrophysiologic evaluation are not always reliable. The causes of most entrapment neuropathies in the lower extremity may be divided into two major categories: (a) mechanical causes, which occur at fibrous or fibro-osseous tunnels, and (b) dynamic causes related to nerve injury during specific limb positioning. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, including high-resolution MR neurography, allows detailed evaluation of the course and morphology of peripheral nerves, as well as accurate delineation of surrounding soft-tissue and osseous structures that may contribute to nerve entrapment. Familiarity with the normal MR imaging anatomy of the nerves in the knee, leg, ankle, and foot is essential for accurate assessment of the presence of peripheral entrapment syndromes. Common entrapment neuropathies in the knee, leg, ankle, and foot include those of the common peroneal nerve, deep peroneal nerve, superficial peroneal nerve, tibial nerve and its branches, and sural nerve.
Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave, Room AG 278, Toronto, ON, Canada M4N 3M5.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
- PubMed Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20631365
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/rg.304095188
Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The anterior and posterior arteries created at the bifurcation of the popliteal artery. The anterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle and lies along the tibia at the distal part of the leg to surface superficially anterior to the ankle joint. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg, ankle, and foot. The posterior tibial artery begins at the lower border of the popliteus muscle, lies behind the tibia in the lower part of its course, and is found situated between the medial malleolus and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity. Its branches are distributed throughout the leg and foot.
Lower Extremity Deformities, Congenital
Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome
Entrapment of the distal branches of the posterior TIBIAL NERVE (which divides into the medial plantar, lateral plantar, and calcanial nerves) in the tarsal tunnel, which lies posterior to the internal malleolus and beneath the retinaculum of the flexor muscles of the foot. Symptoms include ankle pain radiating into the foot which tends to be aggravated by walking. Examination may reveal Tinel's sign (radiating pain following nerve percussion) over the tibial nerve at the ankle, weakness and atrophy of the small foot muscles, or loss of sensation in the foot. (From Foot Ankle 1990;11(1):47-52)
Narrowing or stenosis of a tendon's retinacular sheath. It occurs most often in the hand or wrist but can also be found in the foot or ankle. The most common types are DE QUERVAIN DISEASE and TRIGGER FINGER DISORDER.
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