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Implanted medical devices such as cardiac pacemakers pose a potential hazard in magnetic resonance imaging. Electromagnetic fields have been shown to cause severe radio frequency-induced tissue heating in some cases. Imaging exclusion zones have been proposed as an instrument to reduce patient risk. The purpose of this study was to further assess the impact of the imaging landmark on the risk for unintended implant heating by measuring the radio frequency-induced electric fields in a body phantom under several imaging conditions at 1.5T. The results show that global radio frequency-induced coupling is highest with the torso centered along the superior-inferior direction of the transmit coil. The induced E-fields inside the body shift when changing body positioning, reducing both global and local radio frequency coupling if body and/or conductive implant are moved out from the transmit coil center along the z-direction. Adequate selection of magnetic resonance imaging landmark can significantly reduce potential hazards in patients with implanted medical devices. Magn Reson Med, 2010. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Würzburg, Julius-Maximilians-University, Würzburg, Germany.
This article was published in the following journal.
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The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; fluorescence imaging; and MICROSCOPY.
Any system which allows payors to share some of the financial risk associated with a particular patient population with providers. Providers agree to adhere to fixed fee schedules in exchange for an increase in their payor base and a chance to benefit from cost containment measures. Common risk-sharing methods are prospective payment schedules (PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM), capitation (CAPITATION FEES), diagnosis-related fees (DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUPS), and pre-negotiated fees.
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